Semantic Enhancement vs. Integration Data-Model

Semantic Enhancement vs. Integration Data-Model

Semantic Enhancement vs. Integration Data-Model DSC Solution Example Ontology vs. Data-Model Single Ontology Multiple Data models Person Person Skill Person Name Computer Skill Programming Network Skill Skill Is-a PersonName NetworkSkill ProgrammingSkill PersonSkill Last Name Last Name First Name First Name Skill

Skill Person Name Computer Skill Bearer-of Ontology provides a comprehensive hierarchical view of a domain as opposed to a flat and partial representation of a data-model Sources Source database Db1, with tables Db1.Person and Db1.Skill, containing person data and data pertaining to skills of different kinds, respectively. PersonID SkillID 111 222 SkillID Name 222 Java Description Programming Source database Db2.Person, containing data about IT personnel and their skills: ID 333 SkillDescr SQL Source database Db3.ProgrSkill, containing data about programmers skills:

EmplID 444 SkillName Java Representation in the Dataspace Source Concept Db1.Name Db2.SkillDescr Db3.SkillName Db1.PersonID Db2.ID Db3.EmplID Predicate Is-a Is-a Is-a Is-a Is-a Is-a SE Concept SE.Skill SE.ComputerSkill SE.ProgrammingSkill SE.PersonID SE.PersonID SE.PersonID SE.ComputerSkill Is-a SE.ProgrammingSkill Is-a SE.Skill SE.ComputerSkill Term

Predicate 111, Db1.PersonID hasSkillID 222, Db1.SkillID hasName 222, Db1.SkillID hasDescription Term 222, Db1.SkillID Java, Db1.Name 333, Db2.ID 444, Db3.EmplID SQL, Db2.SkillDescr Java, Db3.SkillName hasSkillDescr hasSkillName Programming, Db1.Description Representation of data-models, SE and SE annotations as Concepts and ConceptAssociations Blue SE annotations Red SE hierarchies Native representation of data and datamodels as Terms and Statements Index Entities Based on SE Index Entry Associated Field-Value 111, PersonID Type: Person

Skill: Java Db1.Description:Programming 333, PersonID Type: Person ComputerSkill: SQL 444, PersonID Type: Person ProgrammingSkill: Java Dynamic model-driven definition of entities based on user preferences, e.g. users want to deal with Persons data, including data about Skills Index entities based on the SE and native (blue) vocabularies Leverages syntactic integration provided by DRIF, semantic integration provided by the SE vocabulary and annotations of native sources, and rich semantics provided by ontologies in general Entering Skill = Java (which will be re-written at run time as: Skill = Java OR ComputerSkill = Java OR ProgrammingSkill = Java OR NetworkSkill = Java) will return: persons 111 and 444 Entering ComputerSkill = Java OR ComputerSkill = SQL will return: persons 333 and 444 entering ProgrammingSkill = Java will return: person 444 entering Description = Programming will return: person 111

Allows to query/search and manipulate native representations Additional querying richness can be achieved by combining pre-materialization with query re-write Light-weight non-intrusive approach that can be improved and refined without impacting the Dataspace and without SE Index Entry 111, PersonID 333, ID 444, EmplID Associated Field-Value Type: Person Name: Java Description: Programming Type: Person SkillDescr: SQL Type: Person SkillName: Java Index entities based on native vocabularies However much manual effort the analyst is able to apply in performing search supported by the Index entries, the information he will gain will still be meager in comparison with what is made available through the Index based on the SE. Even if an analyst is familiar with the labels used in Db1, for example, and is thus in a position to enter Name = Java, his query will still return only: person 111. Directly salient Db4 information will thus be missed. Ontology and Data-Model Education Skill

Technical Education ComputerSkill ProgrammingSkill SQL Java C++ PersonID Name Description 111 Java Programming 222 SQL Database Amazing semantic enrichment of data without any change to data; enrichment that can grow and change as our understanding of the reality changes For this richness to be leveraged by different communities, persons, and applications it needs to be constructed in accordance with the principles of the SE

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