24. 25. Olfactory Bulb Pheromone Taste Buds Kinesthetic Senses Vestibular Senses Gate Control Theory Constancy: Size Constancy
Color Constancy Aerial Perspective Stereoscopic Vision Perceptual Illusion Autokinestic Illusion Phi Phenomenon BellWork Copy down the graphic organizer in your notes.
Sense Vision Hearing Smell Taste Touch Description of How Brain
Processes Sense Absolute Threshold Group Activity
Interview each other about the events of September 11, 2001. Ask these important questions:
Who What When Where Why How In your questions and
answers, try to focus on the sensations (seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching) as well as emotions you felt as you witnessed the events of September 11, 2001. Is
there a difference between the individual memories and the collective memory of the class? How did hearing your interviewee's recollection of the event affect your own memory, if at all?
September 11, 2001 Eyewitness Interviews and Reactions Men and women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, a cross-section of America. Included are interviews with people who were in the World Trade Center, but the majority of the interviews are from other parts of the country, from
those who first heard the news on television or radio What events does each of the eyewitnesses recount? How are their accounts different? How are they similar? What
role did technology play in how the eyewitnesses experienced the events of September 11? In what ways, if any, did technology help people? In what ways, if any, did technology fail to help people? What emotional responses do the
eyewitnesses describe? Which emotions seemed to be the most commonly experienced immediately after the attacks? Which were most common days or weeks after the events? How do the eyewitness accounts add to your understanding of what you
previously knew about the events of September 11, whether from seeing the events on television, reading about them, or learning about them in school? Describe what you believe to be the unique value of eyewitness accounts of major historical events. What
do these accounts reveal about the values of the individuals describing the events of the morning of September 11? How might these values affect the way in which they recall the events? What other factors might affect their recollection of the events? Reactions to 9/11 Billie
Jo McAfee, South Lake Tahoe, California Peter V.Z. Roudebush, Fort Dodge, Iowa Melanie Jean Whipple, East Lansing, Michigan Patti Chapman, San Diego, California Cindy Mediavilla, Los Angeles, California David Harmon, Portland, Maine Compare
the psychological and emotional responses of these individuals with those of eyewitnesses. What similarities do you note? What differences? Do peoples emotions and fears seem to vary according to where they lived
in the countrys interior or near a coast, in a small town or a big city? What are these interviewees perspectives on the medias coverage of the events? How do you, as a listener and student of
history, respond to the eyewitness accounts versus those of people who watched the events on television? How might your response to the accounts influence the way you construct a historic account of September 11? BellWork
Copy these questions on a separate sheet of paper. You will use these later during the video. Leave space so you will
have room to write the answers.: ______ _______ capture energy and convert it into signals that can be recognized by the brain. What are the three colors the eyes see? In the eyes, the cones are responsible for perceiving ________. What is the language of the brain? If you are hit on the back of your head, you are likely to see what? What are the three areas of the visual part of the cortex? If the ______ _______ ______ is damaged, a person can experience blind sight.
What is blind sight? When a blind person reads Braille, the _____ cortex is being activated. Sensory and Perception Chapter 3 Exploring Psychology Helen Keller had been blind and deaf since she was two years old. For the next four years, Helen was wild and unruly. Then when she was six, Anne Sullivan, a
teacher, entered her life. Using the sense of touch as the link between their two worlds, Anne tried again and again, by spelling words into Helens hand, to make Helen grasp the connections between words and the things they stood for. The breakthrough came one day as Anne spelled the word water into Helens hand as water from a spout poured over it. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers, Helen remembered. Suddenly I felta thrill of returning thought; and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me.
adapted from ABCs of the Human Mind, Readers Digest, 1990. The Questions What senses were unavailable to Helen Keller? How did she learn to compensate? An Eskimo or Native American?
Whats Up? In the next few seconds, something peculiar will start hap pening to the material youa rereading. Iti soft ennotre alieze howcom plext heproces sof rea ding is. Aoccdrnig
to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. What is sensation?
What occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor? Response Stimuli - any change in the environment to which an organism responds
Stimulus Response What is a perception? Combined sensations with past experiences. How we, as INDIVIDUALS, interpret our sensations Organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
Psychophysics The study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that caused them. How much energy is required for someone to hear a sound or see a light? How much of a scent must be in a room before one can smell it?
Absolute Thresholds of the senses Absolute Threshold The weakest amount of stimulus required to produce a sensation. Person can detect the stimulus 50% of the time. The Absolute Thresholds
Sight a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear night. Hearing hearing a watch ticking 20 feet away. Taste tasting 1 teaspoon of sugar
dissolved in 2 gallons of water. Smell smelling 1 drop of perfume in a 3room house. Touch feeling a bees wing falling a distance of 1 centimeter onto your cheek. Sensory Adaptation Allows us to notice differences in sensations and react to the challenges of different or changing
stimuli. Our senses adjust to the overall level of stimulation More stimulation, less sensitive Less stimulation, more sensitive Stroop Effect Pink Red
Blue Pink Green Orange Yellow Blue
Red Light Blue Green Black Brown
Pink Orange Red Black Green Purple
Red White Green
Read the following list of colors. Say the color of each word aloud. Which does your mind see? The color of the word or the color the word REPRESENTS? The Stroop Effect
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/words.html Webers Law What is Webers law? Difference Threshold/ Just Noticeable Difference is a constant proportion of the stimulation being judged.
Webers Law JND Constants: Hearing 0.3% (very sensitive) Taste 20%
Subliminal Messages www.sublymonal.com Can people be influenced by information they are not consciously aware? ESP: Real or Imagined? Extrasensory
Perception Response to an unknown event not presented to any known sense Clairvoyance: awareness of an unknown object or event Telepathy: knowledge of someone elses thoughts or feelings Precognition: forehand knowledge of future events
Parapsychology Inside Out Sensation The Five Senses Or maybe SIX? Senses
Seeing Hearing Smelling Tasting Touching Internal
Vestibular Kinesthetic Vision Process of Vision Light
= Stimulus for sense of sight Light enters the eye through the cornea Passes through the pupils (contracts) Moves through a lens and focuses on the retina (lining of the eye containing the receptor cells) Fovea is the part of the eye that focuses images
Visual Receptor Cells Rods 120 million in each retina Respond to intensity of light and dark Responsible for night vision
Cones 8 million in each retina Respond to colors Less sensitive to light than rods From the Eyes to the Brain
Ganglion cells Neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain Optic Nerve Carries messages from each eye to the
brain Color Vision Color Blindness Trichromats- people with normal color vision Monochromats- most severe type of colorblindness (less common)
Only shades of gray Dichromats- blind to either red-green or blue-yellow shades of light and dark (more common) Binocular Vision Two eyes, one image Retinal Disparity
Visual system receives two images on the retinas Vision Smell and Taste Known as chemical senses because the receptor cells are sensitive to chemical molecules
Smell and Taste are interrelated Smell is thought to be 10,000 times more sensitive than taste Smell Process of Smell Chemical molecules (vapors) enter your nose
Olfactory Nerve Carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain Located in the membrane in the upper part of the nasal passage The Olfactory Nerve Taste Process of Taste
9,000 taste buds on tongue Liquid chemical molecules stimulate the taste buds (taste receptor cells) Information/Data is sent to the brain Includes information about temperature and texture of the substance What Makes Up Taste?J Ben a
s eld yfi Ma Ice cream ue l B
ll e B ld Co ne o St Sour Salty
Bitter Sweet Flavor er ry nd s The combination of taste, smell, and touch You can detect flavors anywhere on the
tongue Hearing If a tree falls in the forest and on one is there, does the tree make a sound? Hearing Sound Waves Loudness,
determined by the amplitude of the sound wave (decibel) Pitch, determined by the frequency of the sound wave Process of Hearing
Sound waves strike the eardrum Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup Sequence of tiny bones in the middle ear that carry the vibrations to the inner ear Vibrations hit against the cochlea Contains fluids and Auditory nerves
Auditory nerve: turn sound vibrations into neuronal signals Found in the inner ear Tiny hair-like cells Deafness Types:
Conduction Occurs when anything hinders physical motion through the outer or middle ear or when the bones of the middle ear become rigid and cannot carry sound. Usually a hearing aid will help. Sensorineural Occurs from damage to the cochela, the hair cells, or the auditory neurons.
A cochlear implant will be needed to hear sound. Tactile Senses The Skin Senses Your skin is your largest sense organ. Most sensitive skin areas are your face and
fingertips Very sensitive: 0.00004 of an inch of skin displacement will cause a sensation of pressure! Four kinds of information:
Pressure Warmth Cold Pain Process of Touch Stimulus Receptor Cells send
electrical signals Medulla Thalamus Touch and Pressure Arousing or Calming the Nervous System
Pain OW ! Gate Control Theory of Pain: Lessen some pains by focusing our attention away from the pain impulses OR sending sensation signals to compete
with the pain signals Two Types: Sharp, localized felt immediately after an injury Dull, generalized felt later after an injury Touch
The Sixth Senses Vestibular Three semicircular canals located in the inner ear that provide a sense of balance. Kinesthetic The sense that provides information about the position and
movement of individual body parts. Perception Trying to Catch a Fly The frogs bug detector shows the rigidity of reflexive behavior. If you sever the frogs optic nerve, it will grow back together, and the bug detector will still work fine. If you sever the optic
nerve and then rotate the frogs eye 180 degrees, the nerve will still heal and reestablish all the old connections; however, this time the results will not be so good. The bug detector does not know that everything has been rotated, so it miscomputes a bugs location. If the bug is high, the frog shoots its tongue low. If the bug is to the right, the tongue goes to the left. The frog never learns to compensate for the changed situation. from A Second Way of Knowing: The Riddle of Human Perception by Edmund Blair Bolles, 1991
Inside Out: Perception The Question Where does perception occur: in the sensory organ, in the nerve, or in the brain? Perception
The brain receives information from the senses and organizes and interprets it into meaningful experiences unconsciously. Our brains fill in the gaps Perceptual Organization Each
whole that is organized by the Gestalt brain is called a _________ The brain creates a coherent perceptual experience More than the sum of all sensations Principles that people use in organizing such patterns:
Proximity When we see a number of similar objects, we tend to perceive them as groups or sets of those that are close to each other. Continuity We tend to see continuous patterns, not disrupted ones.
Similarity When similar and dissimilar objects are mingled, we see the similar objects as groups. Simplicity We see the simplest shapes possible.
Closure When we see a familiar pattern or shape with some missing parts, we fill in the gaps. Proximity ABCD EFG
HIJK LMNOP QRS TUV WX
YZ Sing your ABCs does the pattern you learned your ABCs fit the pattern of the dots? You learned your ABCs in groups of letters, to fit the tune Twinkle, Twinkle Continuity B
C D A Two curves or two pointed objects? Similarity Simplicity
Closure STAR Figure-Ground Perception The ability to discriminate properly between a figure and its background.
Perceptual Inference Filling in the gaps. Synesthesia Hearing Colors: All of her life, a woman, finally diagnosed
with Synesthesia, had seen colors when she heard words or letters. She always saw yellow with hints of green when se heard the word king. Synesthesia is the mingling or swapping of sensory information in which stimulating one sense triggers conscious experience in another sense. 1 out of 25,000 people, result of a crossed wire in the brain?
Subliminal Perception Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness are found to influence thoughts, feelings, or actions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMzbwa6PvEE
Depth Perception Monocular Depth Cues Used to perceive distance and depth. Can be perceived with only one eye.
Binocular Depth Cues Depends upon the movement of both eyes. Constancy The tendency to perceive certain
objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting. Illusions Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli. They are created when perceptual cues are distorted so that our brains
cannot correctly interpret space, size, and depth cues.
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