Services - AP Human Geography

Services - AP Human Geography

Services Chapter 12 Types and Origins of Services Types of services Consumer services (retail and personal services) Business services (producer and transportation) Public services (government employees) Changes in number of employees Growth in services and declines in primary/secondary

Origin of services- no one know precise origination Services in rural settlements Clustered rural settlements (Houses, schools, churches) Dispersed rural settlements (Spread out cities) Rural Settlement Patterns Fig. 12-4: Circular settlement patterns are common in Germany. Linear long lot patterns are often found along rivers in France, and were transferred to Qubec. Distribution of Consumer Services

Central place theory- market place Market area of a service Nodal regions Hexagon best fits an area Size of market area Range is the distance people are willing to travel for a service Modified to minutes instead of miles Threshold Number of customers needed to make a profit Census helps determine this data Distribution of Consumer Services

Market area analysis Profitability of a location Optimal location within a market Range + Threshold= profitability Best location is one that minimizes distance to the largest number of consumers Hierarchy of services and settlements Nesting of services and settlements

Market, hamlet, township center, county seat, district city, small state capital, and regional capital city Rank-size distribution of settlements Rank of cities based on a citys population Supermarket and Convenience Store Market Areas Fig. 12-8: Market area, range, and threshold for Kroger supermarkets (left) and UDF convenience stores in Dayton, Ohio. Supermarkets have much larger areas and ranges than convenience stores. Business Services and Settlements

World cities Ancient world cities- Ur, Athens, Rome Medieval world cities- Feudalism, large walled cities Modern world cities- Center of services world wide Hierarchy of business services World cities-London, New York and Tokyo

Command and control centers- Atlanta, Boston, Seattle Centers of financial, law and advertising Headquarters, medical centers Specialized producer-service centers- Detroit, Albany Highly skilled services Paris Fig. 12-13: Paris was originally surrounded by walls which were expanded to include new neighborhoods as the city grew.

Clustering of Services Central business district (CBD) Retail services in the CBD High land costs in the CBD Tokyo 1,000,000,000 per acre of land Activities excluded from the CBD

Recent years has transitioned to offices instead of retail Manufacturing, residential neighborhoods Suburbanization of businesses Suburbanization of retailing Planned suburban shopping malls Suburbanization of factories and offices Cheap land and labor, close to residential neighborhoods

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