Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Penn State York

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Penn State York

SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME By: Trent Glace Raj Patel Background SARS stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

The virus is a SARS-associated coronavirus (CoV). This means that the virus was mutated from an animal related, SARS-like virus. Animals that the virus could possibly be adapted from include the Himalayan palm civets found in food markets and consumed as a delicacy in the People's Republic of China. SARS-CoV is thought to have evolved by positive selective pressure on animal SARS-like viruses. Timeline November 2002- An international outbreak involving 26 countries, 8439 cases, and 774 deaths. March 2003- The outbreak is starting to be recognized

by the WHO. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is identified. Global alert issued after cases move to Canada. April 2003- The RNA of the virus is isolated and replicated. May 2003- Source of virus is identified from animals sold for human consumption. June 2003- Many cities are removed from the list of possible infected cities. July 2003- The outbreak finally culminated. Taxonomy

Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, only two coronaviruses were recognized as causing human disease. Coronavirus OC43 and 229E, both associated with the common cold. Coronaviruses can be divided into three groups based on their genetic and

protein content. SARS-CoV does not fit into any of these three groups and is new virus. Taxonomy The coronavirae is a group of viruses that are typically spherical and have specific receptors that bind to a cell. The virus enters a cell the typical way of any other virus. Diagnosis

Multiple tests for the diagnosis of SARS have been developed. Reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which detects SARS-CoV RNA in specimens of blood, stool, and respiratory secretions taken from patients Serologic tests, which detect SARS-CoV antibodies in the serum produced after infection, have become the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. SARS appears to be less sensitive to Seroconversion (development of antibodies to a particular antigen) occurs in patients with SARS from 1 to 4 weeks after symptom onset. The majority of patients do not develop either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM antibodies until the third or fourth week of illness.

Symptoms The SARS CoV is typically inhaled from an environment and introduced to the lungs and gastrointestinal tissues of a host. The virus attaches to the lungs. This produces an influx in enzymes, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is predominantly found in the heart and kidney, is a cellular receptor for SARSCoV. Since SARS thrives in the

lungs it causes symptoms very similar to Symptoms Typically a host develops a fever first, sometimes in excess of 100.4F (38.0C). The fever is sometimes associated with chills or other symptoms, including headache, general feeling of discomfort, and body aches. Some people also have mild respiratory symptoms at the outset. About 10 percent to 20 percent of patients have diarrhea. After 2 to 7 days, SARS patients may develop a dry, nonproductive cough or feel short of breath. These symptoms might be accompanied by or progress to a condition in which the oxygen

levels in the blood are low (hypoxia). Most patients develop pneumonia eventually. Tests SARS CoV cannot be readily identified. One technique is a white blood cell count Other tests identify the number of enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase. The virus produces

high levels due to lung tissue damage. A chest radiograph produses infiltrates (typically in 2nd week to 3rd week). Lastly, high-resolution computerized tomography can be used to identify viruses. Transmission HUMAN Direct contact with mucosal membranes Respiratory droplets

Airborne transmission through fomites ANIMAL Close contact Consumption of various other infected organisms. Epidemiology

SARS is only contained in laboratories where the virus is being studied. Animals carry nonlethal forms from which the virus was originally mutated. Morbidity and Mortality MORBIDITY

Death only occurs for every 1 : 10.46 people. SARS is treated by actively caring for the infected and allowing them to make their own antibodies (takes about 3 weeks to fully complete) SARS in children is less virulent and rarely kills the host. MORTALITY

The last international outbreak, involved 26 countries, 8098 cases, and 774 deaths. Ended in July 2003. Since then, there has been one cluster of 11 cases including one death, resulting from the escape of SARS-CoV from research laboratories. In addition, four isolated cases of SARS with no deaths were identified in December 2003 and January 2004.

Pathogenecy Recently, the 29,751-base pair long genome for SARS-CoV was fully sequenced. Scientists are currently conducting a thorough investigation of the sequence to identify any types of vaccines that may be used for possible preventive techniques. Works Cited "CDC- Fact Sheet for SARS." Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). 3 May 2005. Department of Human and Health Services. 9 Dec. 2007

. Kleinman, Arthur. SARS in China: Prelude to Pandemic? California: Stanford: Stanford UP, 2006. 240-244. Poutanen, Susan M. "McGraw Hill-Access Science." 7 Dec. 2007 . "The Genome Sequence of SARS Associated Corona virus." 30 May 2003. Science Express. 5 Dec. 2007 .

Recently Viewed Presentations



    The first student in each line picks one and writes the conjugation on the board then goes to back of line. If it is correct, they get a thumbs up and the word can go in a pile on the...
  • The Winter's Tale

    The Winter's Tale

    And her faith is in "powers divine" that she insists view and judge human affairs. (ll. 27ff). And in the oracle of Apollo. Apollo's judgment! And immediately another "judgment." And another! Leontes vows his change of mind and repentance -...
  • Simon Witts -

    Simon Witts -

    There is one other that we've got in the kitchen -- that's the Simon Witts term, those that don't know me well -- there's one in the kitchen on central marketing. And we've got some good assets beyond SharePoint, to...
  • Era 2 Review - Aurora Public Schools

    Era 2 Review - Aurora Public Schools

    Era 2 Review. Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia, 600-1200. What is the importance of Inner and Central Asia as a region of interchange during the Tang period? Tang: took over . from Sui only in. power for 34. years...
  • Bohr Diagrams

    Bohr Diagrams

    BOHR DIAGRAMS. There is a pattern to the arrangements of electrons in atoms. Atoms have SHELLS of electrons around the nucleus. 2.3 The Periodic table and Atomic Theory. Niels Bohr showed how electrons are arranged in an atom = A...
  • Shape and Space Rotations Rotation Which of the

    Shape and Space Rotations Rotation Which of the

    Rotations Rotation Which of the following are examples of rotation in real life? Can you suggest any other examples? Opening a door? Walking up stairs? Riding on a Ferris wheel? Bending your arm? Opening your mouth? Opening a drawer? Describing...
  • SmartBoard Whiteboards

    SmartBoard Whiteboards

    SmartBoard Whiteboards Chalkboards for the 21st Century Cassandra Anderson Tomaz Bogovic Brian Do What is a SmartBoard? A SmartBoard is an interactive whiteboard. There are a variety of models and sizes. They can be very useful in a classroom. SmartBoard...
  • T. Trimpe 2008 1. In what ocean

    T. Trimpe 2008 1. In what ocean

    What color is SpongeBob's bathing suit? A. Brown B. Red C. Yellow D. Blue 5. What did SpongeBob name the blue jellyfish he caught? A. Blue B. Jelly C. Fishy D. Friend 6. What did SpongeBob name his jellyfishing net?...