SHOULD CANADA WEST JOIN CONFEDERATION? A Legislative Assembly Meeting on 11 April 1867 Trustees: Camille Dela Cruz, Ashley Hewton, Becca Lim, and Charlene Ursua Members In Attendance: Mr. Choos Social Studies 10 Block 3 Class Minutes by: Mr. Choo Special Guest: Mrs. Sarmento Agenda 11 April 1867 Six Confederation Issues 3-5 Key Players in Canada West 6-8 Strengthening Our Colony 9 Jeopardizing Our Colony........................................ 10
Most Important Issues for Canada West 11-12 Interesting Details 13 Our Final Decision .... 14 The REAL Decision ... 15 But What If? ... 16 Bibliography 17 What are the six issues of Confederation for Canada West? US Civil War and American Expansionism Concern that Canadian territory was used as a base for Southern troops attacking Northern states during the American Civil War Canada West is accused of harbouring fleeing Southerners Manifest Destiny (belief that USA is destined by God to control all of North America) is a threat Americans looking to expand into Ruperts Land, but Canada West could use this land for its resources and to expand our own country Fenian Invasions Consists of secret society of Irish patriots who immigrated from Ireland to US Vendetta against Britain the British crushed their independence movement
Attacking British territory to intimidate Britain itself Canada West is caught in the cross-fire as collateral damage between Britain and Ireland What are the six issues of Confederation for Canada West? Need For Railway Links (cont.) Railways are efficient transportation, strengthen the economy, reduce distance, improve defenses, stimulate trade within Canada West Crashing railway industry is expensive In united nation, colonies could share costs and Canada West would not have to bear the burden of financing the project of an intercolonial railway Railways would provide sense of connection amongst the colonies of the united nation
Trade Problems Canada West lost exclusive trade privileges with Britain (loss of status and market) The Reciprocity Treaty (agreement of free trade between Canadas and US) is over High tariffs for importing/exporting on American soil Trade inhibited in Canada West due to lack of any ice-free ports and no passage of travel to the maritime colonies without travelling through the United States If Canada West joins confederation, we can trade with other colonies within the country without paying tariffs What are the six issues of Confederation for Canada West? Political Deadlock (cont.) Occurred because governments in Canada were short-lived, none provided
political stability Equal number of representatives from Canada West and Canada East (vote against each other, no bills passed) The Great Coalition (initiated by John A. Macdonald and George-tienne Cartier) resulted in federal union Confederation Party, advocating FOR Confederation of Canada Canada West has larger population but equal representation Can gain power for colony through Representation by Population Changing British Attitudes Expensive for Britain to defend the Canadas Britain supports Confederation Canada West can join Confederation, gain independence without losing loyalty to Britain Who are the main players for Confederation in Canada West? George Brown Born November 29, 1818 in Scotland and died May 9, 1880 in Toronto
Immigrated to Toronto, Canada West in 1843 with father A journalist and a politician Launched the Toronto Globe Newspaper in support of reform Supported representation by population Joined rivals to create a federal union in favour of Confederation during political deadlock Leader of Clear Grit radicals A founding father of Canada Major role in convincing other colonies to join Confederation at conferences Presented idea to British government in December 1864 Ran for Prime Minister in 1867, left Parliament when defeated by John A. Macdonald Returned to publishing the Globe and became a cattle-rancher Died due to infected gunshot wound inflicted by an ex-employee of the Globe Who are the main players for Confederation in Canada West? (cont.) Sir John A. Macdonald
Born January 11, 1815 in Scotland and died June 6, 1891 in Ottawa Immigrated to Kingston, Upper Canada in 1820 A lawyer, businessman, and politician Took part in Rebellions of 1837 as a militia private Suffered great personal loss in the death both his first wife and his infant son Allied with George Brown and George-tienne Cartier to create the Confederation Party from the Great Coalition in June 1864 A founding father of Canada and a conservative Served at local, provincial, and federal levels First Prime Minister of Canada from 1867-1873
Knighted for work towards Confederation Birthday is celebrated by Canadians every year as Sir John A. Macdonald Day Who are the main players for Confederation in Canada West? Robert Baldwin (cont.)
Born on May 12, 1804 in York and died on December 9, 1858 in Yorkville A lawyer and politician Elected into the Assembly in 1829, but retired after losing the next year Compelled to rejoin politics after wifes death in 1836 Introduced the idea of responsible government to Lord Durham on his visit in 1838 Influenced Durhams Report and recommendation of responsible government for Canada Sent a letter to French counterpart Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine with proposal of uniting the two Canadas Partnered with LaFontaine to build support for responsible government Work led to the Act of Union in 1840, the first step towards the Confederation of Canada Strong proponent for maintaining harmonious English and French culture in BNA Left positions in office by resignation every time How would joining Confederation strengthen Canada West? Enable free trade with other colonies Acquire control of the market Gain access to ports for transportation Attract trade with the world
Encourage a growing population Earn more power for the colony in Rep-by-Pop form of responsible government Appropriate representation in government according to population Increase immigration rates Improve economy by building an intercolonial railroad Strengthen relationships with other colonies and prevent American poaching Lay claim to more land for commercial, industrial, or residential use Become independent from Britain while remaining loyal How would joining Confederation jeopardize Canada West? Lose support from Great Britain Increase vulnerability due to a lack of defence available for the whole country Necessary to charge higher taxes to support poorer provinces
Government money spent elsewhere to develop other provinces Give up cultural dominance Must learn to communicate with the French Must accept different lifestyles and beliefs What are the most important issues for Canada West in Confederation? (cont.) CONS PROS - Largest population = most power in representation by population federal government - Colony will be the financial support of the rest of the country - Enable trade with other colonies, without administering or paying tariffs
- Must share cultural dominance and accept French language/customs/religion - Gain control of land and resources - Lose support from Britain - Increase market and trade - Larger land area to protect from invasion - Able to build intercolonial railway (to provide efficient transportation and improve economy) - Sacrifice independence as an individual colony (decisions for benefit of country, not own colony)
- Strengthen troops with a united army - Become independent from Britain What are the most important issues for Canada West in ECONOMICALLY Intercolonial Railway Confederation? (cont.) In the current circumstance, Canada West is struggling with trade and markets, resulting in high tariffs and a lack of transportation for goods and resources. By joining Confederation, the nation of Canada can invest in a railroad that stretches the expanse of the country, improving transportation and strengthening the economy while promoting internal trading. POLITICALLY Representation by Population In the current circumstance, Canada West is equally represented in government with Canada East, despite having a much larger population.
By joining Confederation, we can instate a rep by pop system, which will grant Canada West significant power over the new country. SOCIALLY Cultural Dominance In the current circumstance, Canada West is an English-speaking and Protestant colony with British roots, history, and loyalty. By joining Confederation, Canada West will lose grasp of a dominant English culture system, and will have to both accept and recognize the French culture and language. We will unite a What are some interesting details about Canada West? Population: 1 396 000 people Language : English Religion: Protestant Previously Known As: Upper Canada Currently Known As: Ontario Act of Union: Joined Lower Canada to become Province of Canada in 1841 Economy: western is agriculture, eastern is industrial (logging, milling, canals, railways) Geography: located in the physiographic regions of the Canadian Shield and the St.
Lawrence Lowlands History: originally a French colony, named Vote for the Future of Canada West Silent Vote: Rest your head on your desk. When you agree with the statement announced, raise your hand. Only vote once (you cannot agree with both statements). No peeking. Make your own decision, despite historical accuracy. Consider the consequences of your decision. Our Final Decision YES, CANADA WEST SHOULD JOIN CONFEDERATION. Economy will be improved greatly with opening up trade and markets, and constructing an intercolonial railway for efficient transportation. Politically, Canada West would gain control over an entire
country, instead of just the colony. Canada is full of useful resources for exportation and trade leverage (lumber, minerals, etc.) Canada West has much to offer in terms of leadership, resources, money, and population. Joining Confederation and claiming land will spite the Americans, and we are always looking to spite the Americans. Teamwork makes the dream work. We are biased because Canada West joining Confederation led to the wonderful country that we live in today. The REAL Decision YES, CANADA WEST JOINED CONFEDERATION. Benefits to economy and trade Improved political structure Strong leadership to guide colony smoothly through the process Independence was achieved this way Idea was popularized throughout the colony to convince people and sway support in favour Ultimately, the pros outweighed the cons
But What If? What if Canada West did not join Confederation? What would the colony look like today? How would this affect us? Canada West was a driving colony towards Confederation If this colony did not choose to join Confederation, maybe none of the other colonies would have chosen Confederation either and Canada would not exist. Canada could be under control of Britain. We could still be ruled by the monarchy. Canadian land could have been invaded and taken over by the USA We might all be Americans, members of the largest country in the world by land area, with gun control issues, Dunkin Donuts, and Donald Trump as a presidential candidate Canada could have become a prized land that was the subject of wars for claim and control. Therefore, it could be occupied by any powerful country. The colonies might have formed a different country. Maybe each
colony would have become their own country. Bibliography teacherchoo.com http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/confederation/ http://myriverside.sd43.bc.ca/fosterd-2013/2014/04/17/colonial-advantag es-and-disadvantages-of-confederation / http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timelines/sir-john-a-macdonal d / http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/robert-baldwin/ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/george-brown/ http://www.edmaps.com/html/canada.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Confederation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_Act,_1867 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fathers_of_Confederation http://www.begbiecontestsociety.org/1st20.htm
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