SIFT A Literary Analysis Method - WordPress.com

SIFT A Literary Analysis Method - WordPress.com

SIFT A Literary Analysis Method ESSENTIAL QUESTION: HOW IS THE THEME OF RALPH WALDO EMERSONS SELF RELIANCE SIMILAR TO THAT OF GARTH STEINS THE ART OF RACING IN THE RAIN? WHAT IS THE SIFT METHOD? Symbol: examine the text and title for symbolism Images: identify images and sensory details Figures of Speech: analyze figurative language and other devices

Tone and Theme: discuss how all devices reveal tone and theme SYMBOLS: SIGNS OF SOMETHING MORE Our everyday lives are heaped with symbols: These commonly accepted symbols are called public symbols WHAT ARE SYMBOLS IN LITERATURE? Writers create new, personal symbols in their work. In literature, a symbol is an object, a setting, an event, an animal, or even a person that functions in the

story the way youd expect it to, but also stands for something more than itself, usually for something abstract. SIFTING FOR SYMBOLS Guidelines to follow Symbols are often visual. When some event or object or setting is used as a symbol in the story, you will usually find that the writer has given it a great deal of emphasis. Often it reappears throughout the story. A symbol in literature is a form of figurative language. Like a metaphor, a symbol is something that is identified with something else that is very different from

it, but that shares some quality. A symbol usually has something to do with a storys theme. HOW DO I (SIFT) IMAGES? Identify images and sensory details. Imagery helps to promote mood and tone. What do I see, hear, taste, smell or feel? What effect is the author trying to convey with these images? WHAT IS TONE & MOOD? Tone: The attitude that an AUTHOR takes toward the subject of the text.

Tone is conveyed through the authors use of language (words, images, actions, etc.) angry-challenging-sarcastic-outragedhumorous Mood: The emotions that the READER feels while reading; the atmosphere of the story. Mood is conveyed through character emotions, setting and other elements. romantic-gloomy-optimistic-sad-hopeful HOW DO I (SIFT) FIGURES OF SPEECH? Analyze figurative language and other devices. Writers form images by using figures of speech such as simile,

metaphors, hyperbole, and personification. Other devices can include: irony, allusion SIMILE A direct comparison of two things, usually using the words like or as. He watches from his mountain walls, And like a thunderbolt he falls. Tennyson Hell is a city much like London/ A populous and smokey city. Shelley My heart is like an apple tree whose boughs are bent with thickest fruit. Christina Raced METAPHOR An IMPLIED comparison in which one thing is

spoken in terms of something else. Metaphors are extremely valuable in making an abstract idea clearer by associating the idea with something concrete that relates to one or more of the senses. And merry larks are ploughmans clocks. Shakespeare Entangled in the cobweb of the schools. Cowper Time let me hail and climb Golden in the heydays of his eyes. Thomas HYPERBOLE The use of exaggeration or overstatement to make a point. It may be used for emphasis, for humor, or for poetic intensity.

It is used freely in sports broadcasting and news articles slaughtered their opponents on the basket ball court. Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard around the world. Emerson PERSONIFICATION A comparison that treats objects or things as if they were capable of the actions and feelings of people. Sea that bears her bosom to the moon Wordsworth The dirty nurse, Experience. Tennyson Mad Ireland hurt you into poetry. Auden

IRONY An expression in which the authors meaning is quite different (often the opposite) from what is literally said. Irony, as a matter of tone, occurs most frequently in prose as a technique for comedy, tragedy, suspense or horror. Three types of irony: Verbal Situational Dramatic HOW DO I (SIFT) THEME AND TONE? Theme: central, underlying, and

controlling idea of a literary work. Abstract concept represented by a character, by actions, or by images in the literary work. A generalization about human conduct. Ordinarily expressed in a full sentence. THEME= WHAT IT IS NOT Cannot be expressed in a single word. Not the purpose of the work (entertainment or instruction) It is not the topic of the work, though the two are likely related. Man versus nature is not a theme, it is a conflict.

It is not a clich or advice. HOW DO I FIGURE OUT THE THEME? You must first understand the plot, the characterization and conflict, the imagery, and the authors tone. Identify the subject in one word Then, explain in one or two sentences what the author says about the subject. NOTE: Many stories/novels have more than one theme and there is seldom just one right answer! FOR EXAMPLE

Literature: To Kill A Mockingbird Subject: Racism Possible Theme: Justice is often withheld from economically deprived racial minorities. TONE AND THEME Tone is the authors attitude toward the subject (the beginnings of theme) Tone is revealed through the words he or she chooses. (Diction) In literature, the reader does not have the benefit of voice inflection- even a dog understands the tone of his masters voice! So, the reader must understand the

authors word choice, details, imagery and language in order to understand the tone. MORE ON TONE To misinterpret tone is to misinterpret meaning (THEME) If you miss irony or sarcasm, for example, you may misread the meaning of an entire passage! TODAYS ASSIGNMENT: 25 pts SIFT the essay Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson on Page 245 in your text book. Symbol: examine the text and title for

symbolism Images: identify images and sensory details Figures of Speech: analyze figurative language and other devices Tone and Theme: discuss how all devices reveal tone and theme Use the same strategy to analyze The Art of Racing in the Rain Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both the symbol and what it

stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of Self-Reliance? Give at

least one piece of evidence for your claim. Theme: What is the theme of SelfReliance? How do you know? Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both the symbol and what it stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory,

gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of Self-Reliance? Give at least one piece of evidence for your claim.

Theme: What is the theme of SelfReliance? How do you know? Heart = Soul of Man Iron string = strength found in trusting yourself Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both the symbol and what it stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory,

gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of Self-Reliance? Give at least one piece of evidence for your claim.

Theme: What is the theme of SelfReliance? How do you know? Heart = Soul of Man Iron string = strength found in trusting yourself heart vibrates to that iron string = auditory image Suggests victory/glory Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both the symbol and what it

stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of Self-Reliance? Give at

least one piece of evidence for your claim. Theme: What is the theme of SelfReliance? How do you know? Heart = Soul of Man Iron string = strength found in trusting yourself heart vibrates to that iron string = auditory image Suggests victory/glory Chaos and the dark: metaphor, symbolic of ignorance & evil Voices = synecdoche = our inner selves Joint stock company = metaphor = society Aversion = personification

Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both the symbol and what it stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of

figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of Self-Reliance? Give at least one piece of evidence for your claim. Theme: What is the theme of SelfReliance? How do you know? Heart = Soul of Man Iron string = strength found in trusting yourself

heart vibrates to that iron string = auditory image Suggests victory/glory Chaos and the dark: metaphor, symbolic of ignorance & evil Voices = synecdoche = our inner selves Joint stock company = metaphor = society Aversion = personification hobgoblins diction (word choice) shows Emersons contempt for the conformist Symbolism: an object, character, setting, color, etc. that exists as itself, but also represents an abstract concept/idea. What symbols do you find in Self-Reliance? List both

the symbol and what it stands for. Imagery: what images (visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile or olfactory) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they effect mood and tone? Figurative Language: What examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, etc.) do you find in Self-Reliance? How do they affect tone and/or mood? Tone: What is the tone of

Self-Reliance? Give at least one piece of evidence for your claim. Heart = Soul of Man Iron string = strength found in trusting yourself heart vibrates to that iron string = auditory image Suggests victory/glory Chaos and the dark: metaphor, symbolic of ignorance & evil Voices = synecdoche = our inner selves Joint stock company = metaphor = society Aversion = personification hobgoblins diction (word choice) shows Emersons contempt for the conformist

Theme: What is the theme of SelfThe individual must rely on him/herself in order to Reliance? How do you achieve their full potential. know? NEXT CLASS: Write an analytical response to the essential question: How do the themes in Emersons essay relate to the themes in The Art of Racing in the Rain? 25 points IF YOU HAVE TIME Catch up on any journal entries you missed Catch up on your chapter

notes

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