Skeletal System Part 2 - AAEC Veterinary Science

Skeletal System Part 2 - AAEC Veterinary Science

Skeletal System Part 2 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton 319-321 bones in the dog Dog Skeleton 319 321 boneswhat accounts for the range? Axial Skelton

Skull Hyoid bone

Spinal column Ribs Sternum Skull Usually consists of 37 or 38 separate bones

Most of the skull bones are joints called sutures. The mandible is connected to the rest of the skull by a synovial joint.

Bones of the Cranium External bones:

Frontal bones (2) Interparietal bones (2) Occipital bones (1) Parietal bones (2) Temporal bones (2) Internal Bones: Ethmoid bone (1)

Sphenoid bone (1) Bones of the Face External: Incisive bones (2) Lacrimal bones (2) Mandible (1 or 2) Maxillary bones (2)

Nasal bones (2) Zygomatic bones (2) Hyoid Bone Sometimes included with the cranial bones Also called the hyoid apparatus Composed of several portions of bone

united by cartilage Bones of the Ear Incus (2) Malleus (2) Stapes (2) Bones of the Face

Internal: Vomer bone (1) Turbinates (4)

Pterygoid bones (2) Palatine bones (2) Vertebrae Consist of a body, an arch, and processes Intervertebral

disks: cartilage separating bodies of adjacent vertebrae Vertebrae Vertebral arches line up to form the

spinal canal Vertebrae usually contain several processes Spinous process Transverse processes Articular processes

Vertebral Regions Cervical C1 atlas C2 axis Vertebral Regions

Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccygeal

Thoracolumbar joint T 11 vertebra = spinous process is more vertical than the others Myelogram of spinal cordcan you see it? Ribs

Flat bones that form lateral walls of the thorax Dorsal heads of the ribs articulate with thoracic

vertebrae Ribs Costal Cartilage: ventral ends of the ribs Costochondral junction:

area where costal cartilage meets bony rib Ribs Costal cartilages join the sternum or the costal cartilage

ahead of them Floating ribs: cartilage does not join anything at all Often end in the muscles of the thoracic wall Sternum

The breastbone Forms the floor of the thorax Composed of sternebrae Manubrium sterni: most cranial sternebra Xiphoid process: most

caudal sternebra Skeleton games on computer education/outreach/games/skeleton/ skeleton.html index.html Appendicular Skeleton Thoracic Limb

Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna

Carpal bones (carpus) Metacarpal bones Phalanges Scapula Flat, triangular bone Forms portion of the

shoulder joint Spine of the scapula: longitudinal ridge on lateral surface Glenoid cavity: shallow, concave articular surface

Humerus (Brachium) Long bone of the brachium Forms portion of the shoulder joint and elbow joint Tubercles: processes where shoulder

muscles attach Humerus Condyles: articular surfaces Trochlea: articulates with ulna Capitulum: articulates

with radius Olecranon fossa: indentation above condyle Epicondyles: non-articular (they are the rounded features)

HUMERUS Antebrachium Radius Main weight-bearing bone of the antebrachium Articulates with humerus and ulna Styloid process articulates with carpus

Antebrachium Ulna Olecranon process Point of the elbow Site for tendon attachment of triceps brachii muscle Trochlear notch: concave articular surface

Anconeal and coronoid processes Elbow Joint Canine Forelimb (elbow) Humerus, radius, ulna- how do they fit together? Carpus

Two rows of carpal bones Proximal row bones are named (radial carpal bone, ulnar carpal bone, etc.) Distal row bones are numbered medial to lateral

Carpal Bones 2 parallel rows Proximal Carpal Bones Radial/intermediate carpal Ulnar carpal Accessory carpal

Distal Carpal Bones First carpal (medial) Second carpal Third carpal Fourth carpal Metacarpal Bones Extend distally from

distal carpal bones to proximal phalanges Dogs & cats - 5 digits Numbered medial to lateral Metacarpal I: dewclaw Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Canine and

Feline Digit I (dewclaw): one proximal and one distal phalanx Digits II to V: a proximal, a middle, and a distal phalanx Ungual process

surrounds the claw on distal phalanx Metacarpal Bones Horses One large metacarpal bone (cannon bone)

Two smaller vestigial metacarpal bones (splint bones) Non weightbearing Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Equine 1 digit with 3 phalanges

1. Proximal phalanx (long pastern bone) 2. Middle phalanx (short pastern bone) 3. Distal phalanx (coffin bone) Also have sesamoid

bones Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Bovine Four digits on each limb Two support weight, two are vestigial (dewclaws)

Each digit has a proximal, middle, and distal phalanx Also proximal distal sesamoid bones Metacarpal Bones Cattle

Two fused metacarpal bones (bones III and IV) Appendicular Skeleton Pelvic Limb: Pelvis

Ilium Ischium Pubis

Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones (tarsus) Metatarsal bones

Phalanges Connected to the axial skeleton at the sacroiliac joint Pelvis

3 fused bones Ilium Ischium pubis Pelvic symphysis: cartilaginous joint between the two halves of the pelvis

Pelvis Ilium Projects in dorsocranial direction Forms sacroiliac joint with the sacrum Ischium Caudalmost pelvic bone

Forms caudal portion of the pelvic floor Pubis Forms cranial portion of the pelvic floor Femur Proximal end forms part of hip joint

Femoral head fits deeply into acetabulum of pelvis Trochanters: processes where hip and thigh muscles attach Femur

Shaft extends downward to form the stifle joint with patella & tibia Articular surfaces: 2 condyles trochlea Trochlea: articular

groove containing the patella Patella and Fabellae Patella Fabellae

Large sesamoid bone Formed in the distal tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle Protects the tendon Two small sesamoid

bones in proximal gastrocnemius muscle tendons of dogs and cats Not present in cattle or horses Tibia

Main weight-bearing bone of lower limb Forms the stifle joint with the femur, the hock with the tarsus Tibial tuberosity Tibial crest

Dog Horse Fibula Parallel to tibia Not weight-bearing

Serves as a muscle attachment site Lateral malleolus: knob-like process Tarsus Hock 2 rows of tarsal bones

Proximal row is named; distal row is numbered medial to lateral Calcaneal tuberosity: point of attachment for the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle

Metatarsal Bones Dogs & cats: four metatarsal bones (II to V) Horses: one large metatarsal bone (cannon bone)

and two small metatarsal bones (the splint bones) Pelvic Limb Phalanges Similar to thoracic limb phalanges Exceptions: dogs and cats Usually only 4 digits (II to V)

Visceral Skeleton Bones that form in organs Examples os cordis: in heart of cattle and sheep os penis: in penis of dogs, beaver, raccoons, and walruses os rostri: in nose of swine

Joints Three general classifications: 1. Fibrous joints: immovable 2. Cartilaginous joints: slightly movable 3. Synovial joints: freely movable Fibrous Joints Synarthroses (archaic

term) United by fibrous tissue Examples: sutures of skull, splint bones of horses Cartilaginous Joints

Amphiarthroses (archaic term) Capable of slight rocking movement Examples: mandibular symphysis, pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks Synovial Joints Diarthroses (archaic term) Components

Articular surfaces on bones Articular cartilage (hyaline) covering articular surfaces Fluid-filled joint cavity enclosed by a joint capsule Synovial membrane Synovial fluid

Ligaments - fibrous connective tissue Synovial Joint Movements

Flexion Extension Adduction Abduction Rotation Circumduction

Synovial Joint Movements Flexion and Extension Opposite movements Increase or decrease the angle between two bones Synovial Joint Movements Adduction and Abduction

Opposite movements Move an extremity toward or away from medial plane Synovial Joint Movements Rotation Twisting movement of a part on its own axis

Circumduction Movement of an extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle Types of Synovial Joints

Hinge joints Gliding joints Pivot joints Ball-and-socket joints

Hinge Joints Ginglymus joints One joint surface swivels around another Only capable of flexion and

extension Example: elbow joint Gliding Joints Arthrodial joints Rocking motion of one joint surface on

the other Primarily capable of flexion and extension Abduction and adduction possible Example: carpus Pivot Joints

Trochoid joints One bone pivots (rotates) on another Only capable of rotation Example: the atlantoaxial joint

Ball-and-Socket Joints Spheroidal joints Allow for all joint movements Examples: shoulder and hip joints

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