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SOA: Reference Model, Standards and Specifications McLean, VA May 23, 2006 This document is confidential and is intended solely for the use and information of the client to whom it is addressed. Table of Contents Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services Reference Models as part of Service Oriented Architecture OASIS SOA Reference Model Standards within Service Oriented Architecture Specifications and profiles in Service Oriented Architecture 2 SOA is an integration paradigm that encourages organizations to re-think how their IT capabilities are organized S O A Service Oriented Architecture

Capabilities performed by one for another to achieve a desired outcome Aligning architecture to enable a collection of services to be linked together to solve a business problem The fundamental organization of a system by its capabilities, their interactions, and the enterprise environment SOA is an architecture approach for organizing and using services to support interoperability between enterprise data assets and applications 3 SOA benefits uniquely address a rapidly changing environment Agility Process Focus more on core competencies and missions by creating a

network of producerssuppliers with intense interactions Improve access to information to enable faster cycle times Enable enterprises to be more agile and respond quickly to business needs Increase business flexibility through plugand-play architecture and re-use of existing services Ensure system change is not a constraint on business or mission change Allow interoperation with other systems & partners without customization Interoperability Costs Facilitate integration with multiple solutions via open IT standards Remain platform,

language, and vendor independent to remove IT barriers for using best-of-breed software packages Reduce development costs by acquiring prebuilt capabilities Leverage previous IT investments through reuse of assets Lower maintenance costs and TCO through fewer instances of a function, and fewer software licenses IT alignment with an organizations mission Improved agility, focus on core competencies, IT efficiencies, and ROI for IT assets 4 SOA allows end-to-end flexibility in meeting user needs Product Service Interface Infrastructure Provider User

Data Web Service Network Database DVD Player Electricity Electric Outlet Power Grid Power Plant Power SOA Consumer Web Services provide standard interfaces between disparate systems 5 Web services are a tactical means to achieve the strategic SOA goal

Web Services are a technical solution to enable SOA SOA codifies the organizations enterprise strategy for connecting systems to provide common discovery, security, and management of those connections Web services have specific guidelines on messaging interactions between services the tactical implementation of an SOA model SOA Thus, Web Services are a specific subset of how an SOA can be implemented Web Services 6 SOA transactions require answering five key questions Application 1 Service Consumer 1. How can the Consumer dynamically discover the existence of a Provider, which can provide the services being requested? 2. Assuming the Consumer knows of the Providers existence, how can it locate the Provider? 3. Assuming the Consumer has located the Provider, how can the two describe how to connect to each other, in a standard format which can be understood regardless of their IT platforms? 4. Assuming they have described themselves, how can they exchange

messages in a common messaging format which is independent of their underlying platforms? 5. Assuming they have agreed upon a common messaging format, what data format can they use to exchange data independent of their underlying database technologies? Application 2 Service Provider 7 Table of Contents Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services Reference Models as part of Service Oriented Architecture OASIS SOA Reference Model Standards within Service Oriented Architecture Specifications and profiles in Service Oriented Architecture 8 Foundation for SOA implementations: a reference model, reference architectures, standards and specifications 9 What is a reference model? Minimal set of unifying concepts, axioms and relationships within a particular problem domain Abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment Independent of specific standards, technologies, implementations, or other concrete details

Content Courtesy: Ken Laskey, MITRE 10 How a reference model complements other architecture concepts Reference Architecture - abstract solutions (using concepts from housing RM) to the problems of providing housing General pattern for housing that addresses the needs of some set of occupants Eating area is a reference model concept, a kitchen is a realization of eating area in the context of the reference architecture More than one reference architecture addresses requirements for developing solutions Large apartment complexes compact kitchen Suburban single family houses large kitchen Dormitories common kitchen Space stations specially-equipped kitchen Content Courtesy: Ken Laskey, MITRE 11 Table of Contents

Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services Reference Models as part of Service Oriented Architecture OASIS SOA Reference Model Standards within Service Oriented Architecture Specifications and profiles in Service Oriented Architecture 12 The OASIS Service-Oriented Architecture Reference Model Technical Committee (SOA-RM TC) was chartered in February 2005 Charter: Developing a core reference model to guide and foster the creation of specific, serviceoriented architectures Objectives: Publish a reference model for SOA. Publish a reference Service Oriented Architecture that tracks to the reference model Home page: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=soa-rm See Documents section for latest version of specification Participating organizations include: Adobe - Computer Associates BEA - Department of Homeland Security Boeing - Fujitsu

Booz Allen Hamilton - Lockheed Martin Cap Gemini - Mitre Corporation The TC is preparing for a second public review of the document 13 SOA-RM Goals and motivations Why develop SOA-RM? SOA has received significant attention within the software design and development community Proliferation of many conflicting definitions (or simply imprecise use) of SOA What intend to provide? Common conceptual framework that can be used consistently across and between different implementations Common semantics that can be used unambiguously in modeling specific solutions

Unifying concepts to explain and underpin a generic design template supporting a specific SOA Definitions that should apply to all SOA Content Courtesy: Ken Laskey, MITRE 14 Users of the SOA-RM Architects and developers designing, identifying or developing a system based on the serviceoriented paradigm Standards architects and analysts developing specifications that rely on service oriented architecture concepts Decision makers seeking a "consistent and common" understanding of service oriented architectures Users who need a better understanding of the concepts and benefits of service oriented architecture Content Courtesy: Ken Laskey, MITRE 15 The OASIS SOA Reference Model is centered around the notions of needs and capabilities SOA is a paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains (OASIS SOA Reference Model Committee Draft) Entities (people and organizations) create capabilities to solve or support a solution for the problems they face in the course of their business

Just as one persons needs may be met by capabilities offered by someone else There is not necessarily a one-to-one correlation between needs and capabilities The granularity of needs and capabilities are driven by the business, therefore they vary from fundamental to complex Any given need may require the combining of numerous capabilities, while any single capability may address more than one need Examples: Using a hammer, purchasing a house Theperceived perceivedvalue valueof ofSOA SOAis isthat thatthat thatititprovides providesaa The powerfulframework frameworkfor formatching matchingneeds

needsand and powerful capabilities,and andfor forcombining combiningcapabilities capabilitiesto toaddress addressthose thoseneeds needs capabilities, 16 The OASIS SOA reference model Central concepts Service Dynamics of Services Visibility Interacting with services Real World Effect

About services Service description Policies and Contracts Execution context 17 The OASIS SOA reference model Central concepts Service Dynamics of Services Visibility Interacting with services Real World Effect About services

Service description Policies and Contracts Execution context 18 Service description Represents the information needed in order to use a service Facilitate visibility and interaction between participants in service interactions No one right description Elements of description required depend on the context and the needs of the parties using the associated entity Certain elements that are likely to be part of any service description (e.g the information mode) but many elements such as

function and policy may vary Best practice suggests that the service description SHOULD be represented using a standard, referenceable format 19 Service Description What goes into it Service description makes available critical information that a consumer needs to decide whether or not to use a service 1. That the service exists and is reachable 2. That the service performs a certain function or set of functions 3. That the service operates under a specified set of constraints and policies 4. That the service will (to some implicit or explicit extent) comply with policies as prescribed by the service consumer 5. How to interact with the service in order to achieve the required objectives, where how-to information includes

1.the format and content of information exchanged 2.the sequences of information exchange that may be expected 1. Each of these items SHOULD be represented in any service description 1. Details can be included through references (links) to external sources and are NOT REQUIRED to be incorporated explicitly 2. Inclusion by reference enables reuse of standard definitions, such as for functionality or policies 20 Table of Contents Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services Reference Models as part of Service Oriented Architecture OASIS SOA Reference Model Standards within Service Oriented Architecture Specifications and profiles in Service Oriented Architecture 21 Standardization plays a key role in realization of SOA architectural

characteristics An architecture is the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution. IEEE STD 1471-2000 Benefits Characteristics Reduce resources needed to complete existing work Increased cross-organizational information visibility Abstract heterogeneity Location Transparency High Interoperability Loose Coupling Leverages existing IT investments Break down data silos Promote agile business practices to meet changing business needs Emphasis on business logic and less on plumbing Reuse functions both internally and externally Bring new functionality online without disrupting existing business 22 Open standards play a key role in shaping todays SOA landscape A standard is a set of detailed technical guidelines that establishes uniformity Define a shared meaning that can drive commoditization of services

Reflects horizontal requirements from a generic problem domain Considers broader applications and process models Encourages levels of interoperability Characteristics Publicly available Developed by a process which sought a high level of consensus from a wide variety of sources Supported by a range of readily available products Open standards are important to help create interoperable and affordable solutions for everybody. (Source: Erkki Liikanen World Standards Day, 14 October 2003) 23 Several industry consortia develop standards to shape the

technology landscape World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): W3C was created in October 1994 to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS): OASIS is a not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development, convergence, and adoption of e-business standards Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I) : WS-I is an open, industry organization chartered to promote Web services interoperability across platforms, operating systems, and programming languages 24 Web Services standards are still emerging and being adopted by business Need Standard = In place

Business Semantics Identity Mgmt Liberty, Passport Building Trust WS-Security, Security Assertions Markup Language (SAML) User Interface Web Services for Remote Portals (WSRP), Web Services User Interface (WSUI) Process Interaction WS-Transaction, BPEL4 WS, WSCI Search & Find Universal Description, Discovery & Integration (UDDI) Description Web Services Definition Language (WDSL) Message

SOAP Format Extensible Markup Language (XML) Transport Common internet protocols (TCP/IP, HTTP, etc) Emerging Established Entrenched Source: Gartner 25 Web Service standards today address key SOA-RM concepts SOA-RM Concept Visibility Key Question How can web services dynamically discover the existence of other web services? How do web services know

where to locate another web service? Service Description Nature of Standards Required Standard method for defining and identifying web services Standards Universal Discovery, Description and Integration (UDDI) Public registry of web services and their locations, which can be queried by any web service over HTTP How can web services universally describe how to connect to themselves ? Standard language to describe how to connect to a web service Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

What data formats can web services universally use? Standard data format transportable over Internet protocols Extensible Markup Language (XML) What messaging formats can web services universally use? Standard messaging format which conveys instructions on what to do with the data SOAP 26 Key standards work together to realize web services interaction High Level Description Application 1 Service Consumer 1 Web Service Provider (Provider) develops its description and

specifies its interfaces using WSDL, and registers itself in the public UDDI registry 4 2 Web Service Consumer (Consumer) queries the UDDI registry in real time, and discovers that Provider has services it is looking for 3 Consumer downloads Providers WSDL specification from the Provider (including the format of SOAP messages the Provider can accept) 3 2 5 4 Consumer then develops a request in the form of an XML based SOAP message (using a SOAP engine to translate from its native format to SOAP) 8 UDDI Service Registry 5 Consumer then calls Provider by sending the SOAP message over HTTP

6 Provider receives the SOAP message and translates to its own native format using a SOAP decoder 1 6 7 Application 2 Service Provider 7 Provider composes a reply as a SOAP message in a format which can be understood by Consumer (the incoming SOAP message from Consumer also includes information on the format of SOAP messages it can accept) Provider then replies to Consumer by sending the SOAP 8 message over HTTP 27 Table of Contents Service Oriented Architecture & Web Services Reference Models as part of Service Oriented Architecture OASIS SOA Reference Model Standards within Service Oriented Architecture Specifications and profiles in Service Oriented Architecture 28

Specifications: Harmonize standards within an architecture context Define fundamental functionality What standards address the capabilities and requirements? What are the communication patterns? Stipulate interfaces as selection of options within a set of standards What are the public interfaces for the service? What are the calling mechanisms? Address dependencies between functionality and interfaces What are the significant architectural decisions to analyze? What are the dependencies and interrelationships between applicable standards? A specification defines the interfaces thru which existing standards (or set of standards) are applied as a solution to a particular integration challenge

29 Service specifications bring together standards as part of a technical solution to a business problem Reference Model Service specifications establish architectural requirements, document functionality to support them, and identify the standards which facilitate Reference Architecture Specification Based Architecture Descriptions Web Service Interfaces (WSDL) Messages SOAP Headers, Body & Extensions MANAGEMENT SECURITY (Authentication, Authorization, Policy) Processes Discovery, Aggregation, Choreography

Encourage implementation of appropriate information technology to meet business needs Consider organization-specific requirements, implementations, and business rules Aggregate applicable standards into cohesive units of functionality Harmonize standards to achieve a particular architectural goal XML (standard data representation) Communications & Standards Networking Layer 30 A specification describes a capability defined by the architecture Describe and communicate, in varying levels of abstraction, the context in which a service operates; the boundaries across which interaction occurs; meanings that are described in terms of observable effects Information Model

(The information exchanged) Interface Model (That the service exists) Behavior Model (How to interact with the service) Fault Model (How the service fails) Quality Model (Constraints and policies) Describe the capability provided by the service in terms of inputs and outputs Describes the expected input and output data model Outlines the available metadata for the service that will be published and searchable Describes the interface Describes available operations Describes any faults that may be generated by an individual operation How the service interacts with other services Describes the underlying processing rules of the service Describes the multiple integration patterns available to use this service Describes how the service will handle faults Describe under which conditions a fault may be returned to the consumer Describes the security requirements of the service Describe the quality of service provided Describes any performance considerations for deploying the service

31 How should I apply this knowledge to my organizations SOA initiatives? Start today, be decisive, and follow a methodology Perform technology portfolio assessment Evaluate current technology environment and build a service portfolio Determine SOA related criteria for services portfolio analysis Complete portfolio analysis to establish service fielding priorities Develop a SOA roadmap and strategic guidance 1 2 Formulate SOA Solution Strategy Build SOA Business Case Operate SOA Environment 6 SOA

Methodology 3 Establish Program Management Implement SOA Solution Architect SOA Solution 5 4 Develop business case to support SOA investment Support SOA strategy with rigorous business case analysis Establish pertinent business case metrics Account for cost, ROI, and risk management in SOA investment decisions Develop and implement change management strategy Engage stakeholders continuously Create needed collaborations and governance structures Incentivize participation Identify progress metrics and milestones Reinforce organizational changes Establish management controls

32 Acknowledgements SOA-RM Editors C. Matthew MacKenzie, Adobe Systems Incorporated, [email protected] Ken Laskey, MITRE Corporation, [email protected] Francis McCabe, Fujitsu Limited, [email protected] Peter Brown, [email protected] Rebekah Metz, Booz Allen Hamilton, [email protected] Other members of the SOA-RM TC here Chris Bashioum, MITRE, [email protected]

Joe Chiusano, Booz Allen Hamilton, [email protected] 33 Questions? Rebekah Metz Booz Allen Hamilton Telephone: 703.377.1471 Email: [email protected] 34

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