Body Membranes These cover surfaces, line body cavities,
Body Membranes These cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form protective sheets around organs Two main types: Epithelial membranes (cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes) and are considered to be simple organs Connective tissue membranes (synovial membranes)
Cutaneous Membrane Otherwise known as the skin Superficial epidermis is composed of a keratinizing (hardening) stratified squamous epithelium Underlying dermis is mostly dense connective tissue Since it is exposed to the air, it is considered to be a dry membrane (More to come later) Mucous Membranes
Also known as mucosa Used for absorption and secretion Epithelium resting on loose connective tissue called lamina propria Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior, such as the hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts They are considered to be wet (moist) membranes
Serous Membranes Also known as serosa Simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue Line body cavities that are closed to the exterior Different areas have different names:
Around the abdominal cavity organs peritoneum Around the lungs pleura Around the heart - pericardium Occur in pairs as it folds in on itself Parietal layer outer wall (fused to cavity wall) Visceral layer inner wall (touches organ) Space between contains a little bit of a thin, clear liquid called serous fluid (lubricant).
(Remember the balloon and fist model) Synovial Membranes Composed of just areolar connective tissue. Line the fibrous capsules surrounding the joints, small sacs called bursae, and tubelike tendon sheaths Provide a smooth surface and secrete a lubricating fluid to cushion organs during physical activities
Back to the Cutaneous Membrane And the Integumentary system (the skin and its appendages Some of the basic functions are Protects deeper tissue from: Mechanical Damage How? It makes a physical barrier. Outer layers has cells that contain keratin, which toughens the cells and has pressure receptors, which alert the body of potential damage Chemical Damage
How? Once again the keratinized cells block chemicals and pain receptors alert the body Bacterial Damage How? Block the bacteria, but also the skins secretion are acidic (inhibit growth) and skin cells have phagocytes (eat the bacteria) Ultraviolet Radiation How? Contains melanin that offers protection from UV damage Thermal Damage How? Contains hot, cold, and pain receptors
that alert the body Desiccation (Drying Out) How? Contains waterproofing glycolipid and keratin It also Aids in heat loss (activates sweat glands and allows blood to flow closer to surface) and heat retention (stops blood from rushing to surface) Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid (makes up some of your sweat) Synthesizes vitamin D (uses sunlight to
convert some cholesterol molecules to vitamin D) Structure of the Skin Epidermis top layer of skin, made up of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of keratinizing Dermis bottom layer of skin, made of dense connective tissue Hypodermis or Subcutaneous tissue not a layer of skin, but connects skin to organs, mostly adipose tissue and acts as a shock absorber
5 Layers (strata) of the Epidermis
Stratum Basale lies closest to the dermis and therefore the blood supply, they are constantly dividing and pushing cells up to the surface Stratum Spinosum become flatter and fuller of keratin Stratum Granulosum keep getting flatter and fuller Stratum Lucidum cells die and form this clear layer Stratum Corneum cells are completely dead and full of karetin. About the top 20-30 cell layers thick. Layer closest to surface Regions of the Dermis
Papillary Layer upper dermal region Contain fingerlike projections called dermal papillae, which may contain capillary loops to help nourish the epidermis, pain receptors (nerve endings) and touch receptors (Meissners corpuscles) On hands and feet they are arranged in a specific pattern. The result? Fingerprints. Regions of the Dermis
Reticular Layer Deepest Layer of the skin Contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, phagocytes, and deep pain receptors called Pacinian corpuscles Contains both collagen (for toughness and water retention) and elastic fibers (for stretchiness) Contains blood vessels for heat control Contains nerves for responsiveness
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