Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation for Deep Urban and Indoor

Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation for Deep Urban and Indoor

Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation for Deep Urban and Indoor Positioning Ken Pesyna, Zak Kassas, Jahshan Bhatti, and Todd Humphreys Presentation at ION 2011|September 23, 2011 Outline I. Motivate & define Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation (TCON) II. Explore signals of opportunity for TCON III. Discuss the central estimator to optimally fuse signals together

IV. Present experimental results Goal Optimally extract navigation and timing information from ambient radio signals Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation is a framework to achieve this goal Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation

TCON is an optimal generalization of specific hybrid navigation technologies TCON Generalize Optimize Cellular [1] GNSS

Iridium [3] [1] [2] [3] HDTV [2] R. Rowe, P. Duffett-Smith, et. al., Enhanced GPS: The tight integration of received cellular timing signals and GNSS receivers for ubiquitous positioning, in Position, Location, and Navigation Symposium, IEEE/ION, 2008. J. Do, M. Rabinowitz, and P. Enge, Performance of hybrid positioning system combining GPS and television signals, in Position, Location, And Navigation Symposium, IEEE/ION, 2006.

M. Joerger, et. al., Iridium/gps carrier phase positioning and fault detection over wide areas, ION GNSS 2009. TCON: Breaking it Down Tightly-Coupled Signals downmixed and sampled with the same clock Absolute time correspondence at the nanosecond level

Opportunistic Navigation Receiver continuously searches for signals from which to extract navigation and timing information Receiver employs on-the-fly signal characterization: Clock stability Clock offset Carrier-to-noise ratio Transmitter location

Tightly-Coupled Opportunistic Navigation Signals of Opportunity TCON treats all RF signals as potential signals of opportunity GNSS signals: GPS, Galileo, Glonass Cellular signals: CDMA, GSM, 4G LTE, & WiMAX Other satellite signals: Iridium Other ground-based signals: HDTV, Wi-Fi

What SOP characteristics are desirable? 1. High received carrier-to- Unfortunately, we almost never get all three noise ratio properties if we are not working with dedicated Good frequencynavigation stability signals 2.

3. Known location/timing offset Freestyle Navigation CDMA Cellular Carrier-to-noise is high, penetrates well Towers do not move Only roughly synchronized to GPS Carrier stability varies from provider to provider Iridium Carrier-to-noise ratio is higher than GNSS Global coverage

Not continuous Bursty TDMA structure Ambiguous in carrier phase from burst to burst Centralized Estimator Centralized Estimator Optimally combines observables from all SOPs Our preferred implementation is an

extended Kalman filter: Base State: SOP state: Full State: Carrier Phase Measurement Models GPS carrier phase measurement model: CDMA carrier phase measurement model: Iridium carrier phase measurement model:

Dynamics Model Dynamics dependent on current state and process noise: Process noise covariance formed by models of clock dynamics: Adaptive Dynamics Model Output * Update SOP

Clock Model Run Kalman Filter old Iterate * Can only be done when is observable (to within a constant offset) new

Simple TCON Demo: Experiment Setup National Instruments RFSA Storage GRID Software Receiver MATLAB EKF Simple TCON Demo: SOP

Wardriving A Simple Demonstration of TCON (2) Characterizing CDMA SOP (1) Obtaining Truth Update SOP Clock Model Run Kalman Filter

6x old new (3) Demonstrate postcharacterization CDMA SOP only estimate of 2x Iterate

Truth Estimate CDMA-based estimate vs. So What? Achieve our estimate error of

by differencing the CDMA-only estimate from the truth variations: The stability of will affect the length of achievable GNSS coherent integration in weak signal conditions In this experiment, CDMA-only TCON (after-characterization) could supply coherent integration times beyond 100 seconds 100+ sec. coherent integration allows GNSS acquisition of signals below 0

dB-Hz assuming all else ideal Mean squared coherence of Conclusions TCON is a framework to optimally extract navigation and timing information from ambient radio signals Tight-coupling at the carrier-phase level and

SOP characterization are essential to TCON A simple TCON demonstration on timing showed a TCON-enabled receiver can coherently integrate beyond 100 seconds using characterized CDMA signals Questions?

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