Measurement Measurement of of Parity-Violation Parity-Violation in in

Measurement Measurement of of Parity-Violation Parity-Violation in in

Measurement Measurement of of Parity-Violation Parity-Violation in in Cold Cold Neutron Neutron Capture Capture Mikayel Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Outline Outline 1. Hadronic Weak Interaction What Why How 2. Experiment Hardware and measurements 3. Analysis and Results Asymmetry, Errors 4. Summary and Outlook Present and Future M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Why Why Bosons

Bosonsare aretoo tooheavy heavy N Study weak interaction between hadrons StudyZthe the weak interaction between hadrons 00 = 91.2 GeV Z = 91.2 GeV 0 Z , W W GeV Explore weak interaction W ==80.4 80.4 GeV Explore weak interactionat

atlow lowenergies. energies. 3 range ,0 , range--210 2103fm fm0 .. 0 0 + + + + 0). The I = I == rule: (KK 00))(KK ss0 The I = I rule: (KK (KK ). , , 300 MeV. , , 300 MeV. N range 1

fm . Probe strong interaction at low range 1 fm . Probe strong interaction at lowenergies. energies. N ? M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration N The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Weak Weak Interaction Interaction e- e W- Weak

Weakprocesses processes p u d u eW- e - e e ++++ee -nn p + e p + e ++ee n u d d uud p nd u d nn++pp nn++pp W+ pduu + dud n M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Weak

Weak Interaction Interaction Weak Weakvs. vs.Strong Strong S = 0 : S = 0 : SS == 00 :: strong strong N N PV N Use Use Parity! Parity! M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration , , PC N The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Parity Parity Violation Violation Parity Parity mirror world P(x)

P(x)==--xx P(y) P(y)==--yy P(z) P(z)==--zz al world P(sn) = sn P(k) = - k Study Studythe theweak weakinteraction interaction between betweenhadrons hadrons Two Twonucleon nucleonsystem: system: nn + + pp dd++ S = 0, I = 1S = 0, I = 1SS==0,0,S = 0, I = 1S = 0, I = 1II==11channel channel M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Why Why PV PV in in n+p n+p d+

d+ ?? n + p excited and ground states S1, I=0 3 P1, I=1 3 1 E1 E1 Parity ParityViolation Violation S1, I=0 P0, I=1 E1 M1 3 3 E1 M1 E1 E1

S0, I=1 1 P1, I=0 3 P1, I=1 E1 Hindered transition P1, I=0 1 M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL How How n p M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration d The n + p d + Experiment at LANL 11 H H so

so far far DDH Theoretical Estimate n+pd+ Cavaignac et al. Phys.Lett.B., 67 148, 1977 F Evans et al.; Bini et al. Phys.Rev.Lett. 55 18 Cs Wood et al. Science 275, 1753, 1997 Flambaum and Murray Phys. Rev. C 56, 1641, 1997 133 Compound Nuclei Bowman et al. LANL 2002 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 H1(10-6) H1(10-6)

DDH: Goal: DDH: Desplanques, Donoghue, Holstein, Annals of Physics 124, 1980, 449. M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment -- Overview Overview Flight Path Neutron Guide Shielding Holding Field Beam Monitors Detector Array RF Spin Flipper Polarizer Analyzer Hydrogen Target Compound Targets M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Flight Flight Path Path Flight FlightPath Path 800 800MeV MeVProtons Protonsfrom from

mile milelinac linac(~100A)A) (~100A)A) Protons Protonshit hitthe theW W spallation spallationtarget targetto toproduce produce neutrons neutrons Neutrons Neutronsare aremoderated moderated by byLH2 LH2to to~100meV ~100meV 20Hz 20Hzpulses pulses50ms 50msframes frames time timeof offlight flightinformation information Neutrons Neutronsare aredelivered

deliveredby by an an~20m ~20msupermirror supermirror guide guide M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Apparatus Apparatus M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Apparatus Apparatus Flight Flight Path Path Length Length Bragg BraggTransmission Transmission L1 Tn M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration L2 L3 Flight

FlightPath PathLength Length The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment -ray -ray Detectors Detectors Measure MeasureNeutron NeutronFlux Flux 3 3acceptance acceptance 3 44rings ringsofof151515 151515cm cm3CsI CsIcrystals crystals VPD: VPD:insensitive insensitivetotomagnetic magneticfield field High Highevent eventrate: rate:use usecurrent currentmode mode Low-noise Low-noisepreamps:

preamps:<<0.1 0.1mV mVRMS RMS Operate Operateatatcounting countingstatistics statistics 95% 95%s stopped in crystalss stopped in crystalsssstopped stoppedinincrystals crystals o Aligned Alignedwith withBB0 0better betterthan than11o M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Polarizer Polarizer Polarized Laser Light Unpolarized Polarized 3 Neutrons He cell Neutrons

Helmholtz Coils Boo-Boo Boo-Boo 12 12cm cmin indiameter, diameter,55cm cmthick thick 4.9 4.9atmcm atmcm Typical polarization ~ 55% Relaxation Relaxationtime timeof of500 500hrs hrs M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Polarizer Polarizer He Heas asaaNeutron NeutronSpin SpinFilter Filter

33 n 3 n 3 He --33barns barns Transmission Transmission Tn/To He - 5333 barns! - 5333 barns! TOF [ms] M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Polarizer Polarizer Performance Performance M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment

Experiment Analyzer Analyzer Function Function Measure MeasureNeutron NeutronBeam Beampolarization polarization Measure MeasureRFSF RFSFefficiency efficiency Optimize OptimizeRFSF RFSFparameters parameters M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Analyzer Analyzer Oven Oven PEEK/glass PEEK/glasscomponents components o Uniform UniformTemperature Temperature(K165 (K165oC) C) Laser

LaserOptics Optics Non-metallic Non-metallicparts parts Polarized Polarizedlight lightfrom from22 sides sides M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment Analyzer Analyzer Transport TS --12 Transport Suitcase TS 12 Suitcase 2.5 Helmholtz coils create 12 Gauss field 2.5cm cmin indiameter diameter Running on batteries Typical polarization ~ 47% 6.2 atmcm

6.2 atmcm Loss of polarization: ~10%/hr Relaxation Relaxationtime timeof of130 130hrs hrs M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Experiment Experiment RF RF Neutron Neutron Spin Spin Flipper Flipper Resonant Resonant Radio Radio Frequency Frequency Spin Spin Rotator Rotator Limit Limitsystematic systematiceffects effects 22mm mmAl Alhousing housingenough enoughto toisolate isolateRF RFfield

field 20 20Hz Hzpulse pulsepattern: pattern: M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL RFSF RFSF Parameter Parameter Optimization Optimization RFSF RFSF Efficiency Efficiency Optimization Optimization Optimization Optimizationisisperformed performedusing usingthe theAnalyzer Analyzer Normalized Normalizedpopulation populationdifference differencebetween between M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL RFSF RFSF Efficiency

Efficiency No=No++No- Pol No=No++No- Pol N1=N1++N1No=No++No- Pol RFSFRFSF N =N +N Off On Off 1 1+ 1- RFSF N1=N1++N1- Off N1=N1++N1- Anl N1=N1++N1N1=N1++N1- Anl N2=N2++N2- Anl N2=N2++N2- N2=N2++N2-

RFSF No=No++No- Pol N1=N1++N1- Anl N2=N2++N2- RFSF RFSF Efficiency Efficiency Measurement Measurement N1=N1++N1- On NMR NMRFlip Flip100% 100% Compare CompareNMR NMRand andRFSF RFSFflips flips Scan Scanoff-axis off-axisby bymoving moving collimator+analyzer+M3 collimator+analyzer+M3 on axis ==99.69 0.12 99.69 0.12 on axis M. Dabaghyan for

the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL PV PV in in Compound Compound Nuclei Nuclei Not Not so so simple, simple, so so why why bother? bother? Reason Reason1. 1. Some Somematerials materialsare areininthe thebeamline beamlineAl, Al,Cu, Cu,In In Reason Reason2. 2. Study StudyPV PVininnuclear nucleartargets targetshas hasnot

notbeen beendone donefor forthis thisA-range A-range M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Compound Compound Solid Solid Targets Targets List List of of Solid SolidTargets Targets Al Al Mn Mn Co Co Cu Cu TiTi Selection SelectionCriteria Criteria Large capture cross-section Small scattering cross-section M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration ClCl

SmallIn Inincoherent cross-section CloseV level spacing V The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Compound Compound Solid Solid Targets Targets M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Targets Targets LH LH22 sortho Cross Section LH Target Cross LH2sections Target Cross 2sections cylinder cap Aluminum scatt Aluminum cylinder cap scatt para

Diameter of 26.62 cm Diameter of 26.62 cm scatter Para-H and coherent 2: capture Para-H2: capture and s coherent scatter 16L of LH 16L of LH22 and Ortho-H : coherent Ortho-H22: coherent andincoherent incoherentscatter scatter kept keptat at~~17 17KK a meV M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration

The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Targets Targets LH LH22 OPC #1 LH2 target Ortho-to-Para Ortho-to-ParaConversion Conversion Ortho-Para Ortho-Paraconversion conversion--1030 1030hrs hrs Neutron Beam OPC #2 Two TwoFeO FeO22OPCs OPCs112 112hrs hrs M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Targets Targets LH LH22 Transmission TransmissionThrough

ThroughLH LH22 Full Fullmeasurement: measurement: LH2 Empty Emptymeasurement: measurement: Resulting Resultingin in M2 M3 Para: 99.98% M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Data Data Analysis Analysis n p M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration d The n + p d + Experiment at LANL

Data Data Analysis Analysis Raw RawAsymmetry Asymmetry U Physics PhysicsAsymmetry Asymmetry D Sequence Asymmetry M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Detector Detector Geometry Geometry Crystal XC Reconstructed ReconstructedAngles Angles YC RC R XC -R

Source Table TableMotion MotionMeasurements Measurements M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Detector Detector Geometry Geometry Geometry GeometryFactors Factors Ideally Ideallycos cosand andsin sin Neutron Neutronabsorption absorptionprobability probability Energy Energyleft leftby byaaininthe thecrystal crystal Error Errorfrom fromLeft-Right Left-RightMixing Mixinginto

intoUp-Down Up-Down M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Depolarization Depolarization in in the the targets targets Neutron NeutronBeam BeamDepolarization Depolarization M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Backgrounds Backgrounds and and false false asymmetries asymmetries Sources Sourcesof ofBackgrounds Backgrounds Electronic Electronicpick-up pick-up Activation Activation Scattered Scatteredneutrons

neutrons Frame Frameoverlap overlap s from spallations from spallationssfrom fromspallation spallation Few Fewpercent percentfor forsolids solids More Morefor forLH LH22 AABkg ==00 Bkg M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Cuts Cuts Cuts Cutson onthe theData Data Neutron Neutronbeam beamcurrent current Detector Detectorsums/diffs from spallation sums/diffs from spallationss Beam Beamfluctuations

fluctuations Detector Detectorsaturation saturation Valid Validspin spinsequences sequences M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Systematics Systematics Sources Sources Multiplicative Multiplicativenoise noise Additive Additivenoise noise Non-hydrogen Non-hydrogentarget targetAA Mott MottSchwinger SchwingerLR LR Stern SternGerlach Gerlachsteering steering M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL

Asymmetry Asymmetry Results Results -- Chlorine Chlorine RING 1 RING 2 RING 3 RING 4 Chlorine Chlorine Huge Hugeknown knownUD UDasymmetry asymmetry Calibrate Calibratethe theexperiment experiment to 2.02)10-6 A =Fit (K19.47 AUD = (K19.62)10-6 ALR = (K0.087)10-6 M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Asymmetry Asymmetry Results

Results -- Hydrogen Hydrogen RING 1 RING 2 RING 3 RING 4 Hydrogen Hydrogen More Morestatistics statistics Better Betterknowledge knowledgeofof background background Para-Hydrogen, A UD -7 A = (K1.7)10 A = (K0.95 2.01)10-7 ALR = (K1.1)10-7 M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Results

Results The The other other targets targets Targets A(10-7) A,stat(10-7) A,syst(10-7) A,TOT(10-7) Co Cu In Mn Sc Ti V 7.7 3.5 0.7 3.6 -11.9 5.8 1.1 5.9

6.8 3 0.6 3.1 -5.3 7.8 0.5 7.8 7 2.8 0.7 2.9 -6.5 3 0.6 3.1 1.7 6.3 0.2

6.3 M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL Summary Summary LANL 2006, Production Phase 1 Preliminary DDH Theoretical Cavaignac et al. Estimate Phys.Lett.B., 67 n+pd+ Cavaignac et al. 148, 1977 Phys.Lett.B., 67 148, 1977 18 F Evans et al.; Bini et al. Phys.Rev.Lett. 55 A = (K0.95 2.01)10-7 A = (K0.6 1.8)10-7 Cs Wood et al., Science 275, 1753, 1997 Flambaum and Murray, Phys. Rev. C 56, 1641, 1997 133

H1 = (K-2.1 4.5)10-6 Compound Nuclei -6 H1 = (K-1.4 4.0)10 Bowman et al. LANL 2002 n+pd+ LANL 2006, Preliminary -4 M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration -2 0 2 4 H1(10-6) The n + p d + Experiment at LANL ORNL LANL JLAB University of Michigan Indiana University Indiana Univ. Cyclotron NIST University of New Hampshire University of Tennessee Univ. of California, Berkeley

Univ. of California, Davis University of Manitoba University of Arizona Hamilton College North Carolina State Univ. JINR, Dubna, Russia Univ. of Dayton KEK, Japan The The NPD NPD Collaboration Collaboration J.D. Bowman, S. Penttila S.Wilburn.T.Ito,A. Klein,V.Yuan,A.Salas-Bacci, S.Santra R.D. Carlini T.E. Chupp, M. Sharma M. Leuschner, J. Mei, H. Nann, W.M. Snow, R.C. Gillis B. Losowki T.R. Gentile F.W. Hersman, M. Dabaghyan,H. Zhu,S. Covrig, M.Mason G.L. Greene, R. Mahurin S.J. Freedman, B. Lauss G.S. Mitchell M.T. Gericke, S. Page, D. Ramsay L. Barron-Palos, S. Balascuta G.L. Jones P-N. Seo E. Sharapov T. Smith T. Ino, Y. Masuda, S. Muto M. Dabaghyan for the NPDGamma Collaboration The n + p d + Experiment at LANL

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