Kingdoms, Dichotomous Keys, Diversity, & Resilience Homework Review

Kingdoms, Dichotomous Keys, Diversity, & Resilience Homework Review

Kingdoms, Dichotomous Keys, Diversity, & Resilience Homework Review pp. 8-23 in your textbook and answer 1.1 even questions 1.2, questions 1, 3, 5 Define: unicellular & multicellular prokaryotic & eukaryotic autotrophic & heterotrophic sexual & asexual Species Concepts? Definitions Unicellular: single-celled Multicellular: more than one cell Prokaryote: smaller, simpler type of cell without a membrane-bound nucleus Eukaryote: larger, more complex type of cell with a membrane-bound nucleus Autotroph: obtains energy by making its own food (sunlight) Heterotroph: consumes other organisms to obtain energy and nutrients Sexual reproduction: requires the genetic material from two parents to form offspring with a unique combination of genes (unique to the Domain, Eukarya) Asexual reproduction: offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only. The offspring will be exact genetic copies of the

parent (eg. in Eukarya include some reptiles, insects, and fish). Eukaryotic cells Us! Membranebound nucleus much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells Examples? Organisms we can see Prokaryotic cells Do not have a nucleus. Genetic material is found in the cytoplasm Smaller, and less complex than eukaryotic cells There are at least 20 times more

prokaryotic cells on Earth than there are eukaryotic cells Features common to all cells D O M A I N S K I N G D O M S Kingdoms

(refer to text p. 29, table 1.5) DKPCOFGS: We need a mnemonic! Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Dichotomous Keys An identification solution that uses many 2-part choices to narrow down the solution We did this! With our shoes! (eg. leather and not leather) Another activity meet the Norns! for more practice and information, look at text pp. 40-1 Criteria depends on Taxonomic rank (refer to p. 29, Table 1.5 vs p. 30, #9) If were interested in the Kingdom what types of

criteria are we looking at? If were interested in the Species rank, what types of criteria are we looking at? How to Make a Dichotomous Key From a Table of Bacterial Characteristics (for use in running the minimum number of tests in identifying an unknown bacterium) ericstavney.net/ppts/a10d%20DichoKeyExample.ppt Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,

catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative

Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila

Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative

Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis

Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not

hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae

Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila

Gram stain negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila positive Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S

negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis

Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria

Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Galactose fermentation positive positive Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae

negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas

fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus

milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative

Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Galactose fermentation positive negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive Aeromonas hydrophila negative Alcaligenes faecalis positive

Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas

fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus

milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative

positive Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation positive negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive Aeromonas

hydrophila negative Litmus milk acid Alcaligenes Citrobacter faecalis freundii alkaline Pseudomonas fluorescens Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S

negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis

Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis

Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Acid-fast staining Galactose fermentation positive

acid fast negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive Aeromonas hydrophila negative Litmus milk acid Alcaligenes Citrobacter faecalis freundii alkaline

Pseudomonas fluorescens Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae not acid fast Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii

Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative

Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis

Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Acid-fast staining Galactose fermentation positive acid fast

negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive Aeromonas hydrophila negative Litmus milk acid Alcaligenes Citrobacter faecalis freundii alkaline Pseudomonas fluorescens

Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae not acid fast Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Catalase produced positive Mycobacterium leprae negative Mycobacterium smegmatis Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism Characteristics Alcaligenes faecalis

Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negative Citrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negative Pseudomonas fluorescens Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negative Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negative

Mycobacterium smegmatis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Mycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negative Corynebacterium xerosis Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactose fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negative Aeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive

Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Aeromonas hydrophila Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Acid-fast staining

Galactose fermentation positive acid fast negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive Aeromonas hydrophila negative Litmus milk acid Alcaligenes Citrobacter freundii

faecalis alkaline Pseudomonas fluorescens Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium leprae not acid fast Catalase produced positive Mycobacterium leprae negative Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Hemolysis positive

Mycobacterium Streptococcus smegmatis pneumoniae negative Corynebacterium xerosis DIVERSITY! Ecosystem Diversity Diversity! Ecosystem Diversity: The variety of ecosystems in the biosphere (landscapes) Ecosystem Services: Can you think of any examples? For a grassland? A ravine? Wetlands? Temperate forests? Tropical rainforests? Is it important to preserve ecosystem diversity? Why?

Diversity! Species Diversity: The variety and abundance of species in a given area (community) -What are some examples of species diversity? -How might species diversity at the level of primary production (plants) affect other trophic levels in food chains? Species Diversity Species Diversity Species Diversity Species Diversity Diversity! Genetic Diversity: The variety of genes in a population of interbreeding individuals -Why is genetic diversity important? -What would happen if a population lacked genetic

diversity? Genetic Diversity (Homo sapiens) Resilience! Biodiversity is the most important factor in ensuring resilience at the ecosystem (landscape), species (communities), and genetic (population) scales What is resilience? Resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to maintain a balance in the face of outside disturbances What are some examples of threats to resilience? Loss of resilience = more brittle populations, communities, and ecosystems How does this relate to Endangered Species? ENDANGERED SPECIES PROFILE #1 Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) IMPORTANCE of the POLAR BEAR Polar bears are at the top of the food chain and have an important role in the overall health of the marine

environment. Over thousands of years, polar bears have also been an important part of the cultures and economies of Arctic peoples. Polar bears depend on sea ice for their existence and are directly impacted by climate changeserving as important indicator species. http://worldwildlife.org/species/polar-bear A Warming Climate Takes its Toll on the Polar Be ars of Hundson Bay Homework Review: text pp. 44-47: 1-22, 30, 32, 33 text pp. 48-49: 1-13, 17-23 (use the self-check summary at the bottom of page 49 for questions you dont understand) Quiz Next Class! - Wed, Feb 13

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