The Philosopher's Way A Text with Readings FIFTH

The Philosopher's Way A Text with Readings FIFTH

The Philosopher's Way A Text with Readings FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 7 is there a spiritual reality?

Exploring the Philosophy of Religion Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved What can philosophy tell us about religion? Michelangelos depiction of the Last Judgment reflects the Renaissance view of life after death. In this chapter, you will think critically about various dimensions of the religious experience. Markrhiggins,2009/Shutterstock

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 7.1 Explain how to think philosophically about religious beliefs. 7.2 Describe how different people have tried to define religion. 7.3 Explain and critically evaluate the view that "God is a human projection."

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 7.4 Explain and critically evaluate the view that religion is a "vital quest." 7.5 Understand different world religions. 7.6 Discuss how philosophers have tried to prove the existence of God.

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 7.7 Discuss and analyze the problem of evil. 7.8 Explain and critically evaluate the role of "beliefs," "faith," and "evidence" in religious experience. Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Chapter Overview Click on the screenshot in presentation mode to view a video on exploring the philosophy of religion. Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Science versus religion: What accounts for the conflict and tension that have existed between them? This depiction of a sixth-century view of the universe shows Earth as the center of the universe with the Sun circling the Earth. Scientists like Galileo (15641642), who asserted that the Earth circled the Sun, were

considered to be heretics. Stiftung Weimarer Klassik/akg-images Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.1 Thinking Philosophically About Religious Beliefs The philosophy of religion Science versus religion Albert Einstein, "Religion and Science"

What does it mean to think critically and philosophically about religions and religious experience? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Frederick Streng (19331993). An American philosopher and professor at Southern Methodist University, Streng was a founding member of the society of Asian and Comparative Philosophy and wrote and edited volumes on religious life across the worlds religions. Southern Methodist University - Hamon Arts Library Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.2 What is Religion? Ways of defining religion

Frederick Streng, from Ways of Being Religious, "What is Religion?" Does your definition reduce religion to what you happen to be acquainted with by accident of birth and socialization? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.2 What is Religion? Ways of defining religion

Frederick Streng, from Ways of Being Religious, "What is Religion?" Does your definition reflect a bias on your partpositive or negativetoward religion as a whole, or toward a particular religion? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.2 What is Religion?

Ways of defining religion Frederick Streng, from Ways of Being Religious, "What is Religion?" Does your definition limit religion to what it has been in the past, and nothing else, or does your definition make it possible to speak of emerging forms of religion? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7.2 What is Religion? Ways of defining religion Frederick Streng, from Ways of Being Religious, "What is Religion?" Does your definition have sufficient precision? Analyzing Streng on definitions of religion

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Ludwig Feuerbach (18041872). A German philosopher known for his radical critique of idealism and religion, Feuerbachs writing about religion led to his dismissal from his university job, and he spent much of his career as an independent scholar. DIZ Muenchen GmbH, Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo/Alamy Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.2 What is Religion?

God Is a Human Projection: Feuerbach Humans created God in their own image. "Realized Christianity" Ludwig Feuerbach, from The Essence of Christianity Analyzing Feuerbach on religion as anthropomorphism

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Keiji Nishitani (19001990). A Japanese philosopher and professor at Kyoto University, Nishitanis work reflects Zen Buddhism, but he was also influenced by Western philosophers such as Kierkegaard. Pearson Education Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.2 What is Religion? Religion Is a Vital Quest: Keiji Nishitani

Nihility Keiji Nishitani, Religion and Nothingness What is the religious quest? Analyzing Nishitani on the Religious Quest Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World

Religions Hinduism Contemplation of the luminous self Reincarnation

Karma Yogic practices Fire sacrifices Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Buddhism Four Noble Truths

Life inevitably involves suffering, is imperfect and unsatisfactory. Suffering originates in our desires. Suffering will cease if all desires cease. There is a way to realize this state: the Noble Eightfold Path. Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Do we have immortal souls? This Buddhist wheel is symbolic of the Buddhas teachings on rebirth. The flames

represent the idea of the self as a flame that is passed from candle to candle in continual movement. Tarasenko Sergey/Shutterstock Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Daoism (Taoism) A way of life inspired from the rhythms of natural phenomena

Laozi Daodejing Inner meditation and observation Yin and Yang Wu-wei Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved YinYang symbol. This image symbolizes the interplay of opposites that are seen throughout the universe.

Weerapong Pumpradit/Shutterstock Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Judaism TaNaKh Monotheism Religious holidays and rituals

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Christianity Largest of the world's religions Core belief that Jesus is the son of God and savior Christian scriptures

The Old Testament (Hebrew TaNaKh) The New Testament (writings of Jesus's followers) Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Islam Muhammad

The Qur'an The Five Pillars Branches Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.3 A Brief Survey of World Religions Indigenous sacred ways

Indigenous religions Relationships with spirit Kinship with creation Spiritual specialists

Group observances Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Saint Anselm (10331109). Christian theologian who is known for his proofs for the existence of God. Anselm held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury in the last years of his life and openly opposed the Crusades to recapture Jerusalem from Muslim rule.

Mary Evans Picture Library/The Image Works Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God? The Ontological Argument Gaunilo's Criticism Saint Anselm's Rejoinder Analyzing the Ontological Argument

The Cosmological Argument Analyzing the Cosmological Argument Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.4 Can We Prove the Existence of God? The Argument from Gradations of Perfection The Argument from Design

Analyzing the Argument from Design The Argument from Morality Analyzing the Argument from Morality Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved William Paley (17431805). Paley was a British theologian who developed the argument from design that asserts that the high level of order in the world is proof of an intelligent designer, God.

Mary Evans Picture Library/The Image Works Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.5 The Problem of Evil Categories of evil Natural evil Moral evil Theodicy J.L. Mackie, Evil Shows That There Is No

God Analyzing Mackie on "Evil Shows That There Is No God" Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved John Hick (19222012). A British philosopher and Christian theologian whose work has made a major contribution to contemporary philosophy of religion, Hicks books include Evil and the God of Love (4th ed., 2007) and An Interpretation of Religion (2nd ed., 2004)

John Hick Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7.5 The Problem of Evil John Hick, from Philosophy of Religion, "God Can Allow Some Evil" Analyzing Hick on the Problem of Evil Edward H. Madden and Peter H. Hare, A Critique of Hick's Theodicy

Analyzing Madden and Hare's Critique of John Hick's Theodicy Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved September 11, 2001. Nearly 3,000 people died on the morning of September 11, 2001, as a direct result of the actions of 19 individuals. How would Hick explain this event in terms of the existence of God? Carmen Taylor/AP Images Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7.6 Faith and Religious Experience Religious Faith as a Wager: Pascal Analyzing "Pascal's Wager" Religious Beliefs Require Sufficient Evidence: Clifford Analyzing Clifford on the Ethics of Belief Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

7.6 Faith and Religious Experience Religious Belief is Legitimate and Compelling: James Analyzing James on the Will to Believe Subjective Knowing: The Leap of Faith Analyzing Kierkegaard on Faith and Reason

Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sren Kierkegaard (18131855). A Danish philosopher who challenged much of Christian philosophy while remaining deeply religious, Kierkegaard maintained that true belief in God required a leap of faith for which there is no rational justification. Interfoto/Alamy Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion Religion provides a framework for human life helping us address the most profound and challenging questions that we encounter as existing beings. What is the meaning and purpose of my life? What is my destiny, both as an individual and as a member of a

community of individuals? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion Religion provides a framework for human life helping us address the most profound and challenging questions that we encounter as existing beings. How I ought to conduct my life? What

values should I live by? What happens to me when I die? What is the relation of death to life? Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Making Connections: Reflections on the Philosophy of Religion It is these questions that our souls yearn to comprehend, and it is to these

questions that religion attempts to provide answers. Copyright 2016, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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