Thoughts from a different planet Godfrey Rust, FRBR

Thoughts from a different planet Godfrey Rust, FRBR

Thoughts from a different planet Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Thoughts from a different planet (Only slightly different). Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Some activities in parallel worlds. Some thoughts on metadata and models. A contextual approach to metadata 2 examples. Some thoughts on FRBR. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The nice thing about standards is that there are so many of them to choose from. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 An appallingly inaccurate summary of the development of metadata standards and identifiers for content and media. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005

Rightscom 2005 1980s mid 90s Libraries MARC Technology XML schema OeBF eBooks FRBR Audiovisual UPC XrML P/META SMPTE ISAN GRid STANDARDS Handle urn

UMID SAN DMCS ISRC Audio Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 ISO codes DOI CrossRef IPDA IPI ISMN MPid Music Magazines PRISM ISSN MPEG21 RDD/REL MI3P

NITF Newspapers NewsML SCORM EAN uri url IMS Education IIM LOM abc ISO11179 MPEG21 V-ISAN Museums CIDOC Dublin Core RDF MPEG7 Multimedia

Archives today EPICS ONIX SICI ISBN Journals Books BICI ERMI ISTC Texts MWLI ERMI CIS CAE ISWC Copyright Rightscom 2005 MI3P (Music Industry Integrated Identifiers Project) (www.mi3p.org) Four year development funded by recording industry (RIAA/IFPI) and copyright societies (CISAC/BIEM), supported by DSPs (Digital Service Providers).

Managed by Rightscom. Standard to be declared May or June this year. 25+ XML message schemas for - declaring new digital releases - declaring rights claims - declaring deals - reporting sales Three new identifiers: GRID (Global Release ID) (Release = box of digital resources) MWLI (Musical Work License Identifier) MPID (Mi3p Party ID) Makes use of ISRC, ISWC, ICPN and any others needed. Releases may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software doesnt have to include music: so MI3p is a generic multimedia standard. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Ongoing development of many new messages and identifiers. Rightscom 2005 ONIX (Online Information Exchange) (www.editeur.org) Five years of message standards for text publishers. Managed by publishing industry standards body EDItEUR. Being widely implemented globally data quality mixed. Being used a reference model for systems development. Messages ONIX ONIX Holdings) in ONIX

ONIX ONIX for Books v2.1 (v 3 expected). for Serials (SPS Subscription Products, SOH Online development. for DOI Registration. for Multimedia? LicensingTerms Message (first draft April 2005). A generic licensing terms message, but first implementation (we hope) by journal publishers and digital libraries (ONIX/ERMI). Onix Products may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software: so ONIX is a generic multimedia standard. Ongoing development of many new messages (and identifiers?). Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Why not one multimedia content metadata standard? Different Different Different Different starting points. functional requirements. levels of granularity for different things. views of reality. The days of one size fits all standards are over. But domains are now overlapping and becoming liquid. MI3P will need to accommodate ONIX metadata, and vice versa. The challenge now is interoperability and re-purposing.

Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Ontologyx (pronounced onto-logics) Ontologyx was formed in 2003 to provide solutions for data interoperability using contextual semantics. Its core resource is Ontology_X - an ontology which can include schemes and terminology from any domain, mapped together through the use of its Context Model (which is really cool). Ontology_X is being built to answer the question: how can I preserve meaning and re-purpose data when combining information from different data sources, whether internal and external? Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Ontologyx background project (1998-2000) brought music, text, visual and audiovisual industry groups together to address metadata interoperability - framework resulted. (The project compared notes with Tom Delsey and others on FRBR and with the CIDOC CRM developers). MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary 2001-3, backed by consortium including IFPI/RIAA (recording), MPAA (film), IDF and EDItEUR (text). Ontologyx created as a brand of Rightscom in October

2003 to develop services and IP based on Ontology_X. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Creation primary types Generic Metadata Schema Diagram Diagram 5 10 Atoms/bits I made it Tangible Identifier s include... ISRC UMID DOI Actions I did it Fixation Fixation Abstracted to Fixed in

Expression Expression Identifiers include... ISBN ISSN UPC/EAN DOI SpatioTemporal Abstracted to Expressed in Abstract Abstraction Abstraction Thoughts I conceived it Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Identifiers include... ISWC ISAN PII DOI 20051999 Version 2.1Rightscom

MUZE Inc April Ontology_X structure 27,000 terms. c 23,000 of them are Relators. It is half a million triple statements (everything is a relationship). Can be expressed in different schemas and languages (eg SQL, RDF and OWL) but has its own underlying neutral syntax. Has a dozen ontologies mapped within it (some under development) including MI3P, ONIX, MPEG21 RDD and (a draft) MARC21 ontology. All terms in each mapped scheme have an IsSameAs counterpart in Ontology_X, so it grows as an ontology of ontologies. All triples are asserted by at least one authority but can be asserted or denied by any number of authorities (who sez?). Rightscom 2005 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Ontology_X use Supports the MI3P and ONIX message developments, the IDF metadata profiles and will support the MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary. Used as a basis for systems design by commercial clients several initial implementations under way (its early days yet). Ontology_X includes schemas as well as simple term heirarchies. It can contain (for example) the complete specification for MARC21, including all syntactic components.

But it is a very polite ontology and keeps itself quietly out of the way while the message standards get the public attention. Two projects in 2005 have brought us into the library domain: - ONIX LicensingTerms Message Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 - JISC TIME project eBook Metadata Testbed Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf

HasDateOfPublication Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 1 2 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf HasDateOfPublication HasDateOfPublicationInGermany Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 1 2 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf

HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf HasDateOfPublication HasDateOfPublicationInGermany HasSmallTextualBitAtTheBeginningWhichMayOrMayNotBeWrittenBySomeoneEls e Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a point of view. 2 1 HasAuthor 2 1 IsAuthorOf Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005

HasAuthor: John Smith Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 HasAuthor: John Smith Dont let that fool you. Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming committed relationships. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 HasAuthor: John Smith Dont let that fool you. Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming committed relationships. Keep an eye on the underlying data model. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005

Rightscom 2005 The universal data model. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The universal data model. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model 0-n Resource An Entity in a Context playing a role other than that of Time or Place. This is expressed through the underlying Context Model to which all terms are related. Relator The characteristic activity or state of a Context

An intersection of time and place. Verb Context Relator 1-n Time A point or portion of time which forms a temporal parameter of a Context. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Relator A Term which describes the nature of a relationship between one entity and another. Place Ontologyx semantics are based on the principle that meaning is derived from the specific roles which entities play in events. 1-n

These are the primitive elements of the ontology. Contexts are of two kinds: Events in which (or as a result of which) something changes, and States, in which they dont. A point or portion of threedimensional or virtual space which forms a spatial parameter of a Context. Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model Contexts can deal with any kind of activity or state eg Originate Pay Copy Transform Digitize Delete Agree Publish Prohibit Record Commissio n Aggregate EditJPG IssueInvoiceType99 RunProgram123

CropRectangularBitmapImage FilmWithCameraType12345 DistributeInGermanyOnWednesdays DanceWithNeighborWithGreenHat Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Create Conceive CreatePerceivableOutput Express Perform These verbs are Fix organized into an Say Write ontological hierarchy Speak ExpressAbout Assert Permit Prohibit Require Deny Agree Declare Ascribe MakeBinaryRelationship Specialize Classify SpecializeContextualClass SpecializeRelator Partition NB

Represent This is an Nominate illustrative Identify subset of the OntologyX Rightscom 2005 Family Tree The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 #1 Adapt Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting #6

Place of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 IsAdaptorInContext #2 IsAdaptorInContext #1 #1 Adapt Adapting Event #5 Time of

Adapting #1 IsContextOfAdaptor #2 #6 Place of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event IsAdaptedBy Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #1

Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 #6 Place of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model Family Relational View All possible statements about the simplest Adaptation event Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 #1

Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 #6 Place of Adapting #1 icoAdaptor #2 #1 icoAdaptation #3 #1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4 #1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5 #1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6 #2 IsAdaptorInContext #1 #3 IsAdaptationInContext #1 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1 #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2 #3 IsAdaptedFrom #4

#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3 #3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3 #3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Context Model Family Relational View Adaptor #2 #5 Time of Adapting Time The statements map #1 icoAdaptor #2 #1 icoAdaptation #3 #1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4 Adaptation #1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5 LastChanged #1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6 #3 #2 IsAdaptorInContext #1

Source of #3 IsAdaptationInContext #1 Adaptation #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1 #4 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1 #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 TerritoryOfUse #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #1 #2 IsAdaptorFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2 Adapting EditedBy #2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5 Event #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6 IsVersionOf #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2 #3 IsAdaptedFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3 #6 Modified #3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5 Place of #5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3 Adapting #3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6

#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4 to commonplace descriptive semantics #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5 Rightscom 2005 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 The Ontologyx Contextual transformation Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 Each Context has two views the contextual view #4 #1 Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting #6 Place of

Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Contextual transformation Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 Each Context has two views the contextual viewand the relational view. #4 #1 Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting

#6 Place of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Contextual transformation An Adaptation event Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 #1 Adapting Event #5 Time of Adapting Each Context has two views the contextual viewand the relational

view. The relationship between the two provides the basis of Ontologyx transformation capability (contextual transformation). #6 Place of Adapting Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 The Ontologyx Contextual transformation An Adaptation event Statements like this made in the relational view: Adaptation #3 Adaptor Source of Adaptation #2 #4 #1

Time of Adapting X AdaptedFrom Y X TimeOfCreation 1996 X MadeIn London Adapting Event #5 X MadeBy John Smith means that there was an event Z like this (shown in the contextual view): #6 Place of Adapting Z icoAdapter John Smith Z icoAdaptation X Z icoSourceOfAdaptation Y Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Z icoTimeOfAdaptation 1996 Z icoPlaceOfAdaptation London Rightscom 2005

The Ontologyx Contextual transformation Simple transformation example Contextual semantics Recording Session Resource 1 Songs (1) Someday (2) Never Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett StartTime 2004-06-27 14:30 EndTime 2004-06-27 16:20 Place Clapham Studios A Vocal Sue White Verb Vocal Ian Green Backing Keyboards Bert Blue Recording Session 2 Songs (1) Someday (2) Anyday Producer Bill Brown Engineer Ann Pink StartTime 2004-06-28 10:30 EndTime 2004-06-28 13:55 Place Clapham Studios B Vocal Sue White Time Keyboards Sally Plum Flute Ian Green Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Song: Someday Resource semantics Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett, Ann Pink Vocal Sue White

Backing Vocal Ian Green Keyboards Bert Blue Recorded 27-28 June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios A, Clapham Studios B Song: Never Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett Vocal Sue White Backing Vocal Ian Green Keyboards Bert Blue Recorded 27 June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios A Song: Anyday Producer Bill Brown Engineers Ann Pink Vocal Sue White Flute Ian Green Keyboards Sally Plum Recorded 28 June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios B Contextual transformati on can be carried out to any level of complexity and granularity Rightscom 2005

COA (Contextual Ontologyx Architecture) Framework The COA Framework is an ontology starter pack: a basic ontology which provides a complete Semantic framework within which all data elements can be placed. All Ontologyx client ontologies are based on this. Attribute Types Element Classes (Context Model) (All entities belong to one of these) (All entities may have these) (strings) Descriptor Name Identifier Annotation (controlled values) Category Class Characteristic Quantity Quality TruthFlag (bags) Composite Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Key Relators (parent/child)

IsSubClassOf IsSubRelatorOf Agent Resource (class/instance) IsA (equivalence) IsSameAs IsSubstitutableFor Context (part/whole) IsPartOf (reverse links) IsReciprocalOf Time Place (type/value) IsOneOf (representation) HasValue HasElement HasDatatype HasCardinality Rightscom 2005

Contextual approach to licensing and rights metadata The ERMI problem: how to deconstruct things like this The right to use licensed materials in collections or compilations of materials assembled in a print format by faculty members for use by students in a class for purposes of instruction Or this [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Or this [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}(whether by post or fax [or secure transmission, using Ariel or its equivalent, whereby the electronic file is deleted immediately after printing]), for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use, a single paper copy of an electronic original of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials.] and reconstruct them into something a computer can deal with. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Contextual approach to licensing terms Licensing Event Permits (MAY) Prohibits (MUST NOT) Requires (MUST)

1-n Usage Has Exception 0-n Usage Has Condition 0-n Payment Activity Report etc Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 This structure allows for whatever level of flexibility or granularity may be required now or in the future. Rightscom 2005 ONIX Usage Composite structure Usages (1-n)

(1-n) (0-n) (0-n) Resource (0-n) Party (1-n) Use Act Time (0-n) Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 (0-n) (0-n) (0-n) Place (0-n) Rightscom 2005 Allowed values Usages

Party (1-n) Resource Use Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Place Rightscom 2005 Allowed values Usages

Party (1-n) Resource Use Time Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Place 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Each of these uses has different specialized children Copy eCopy CopyPart

Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc Rightscom 2005 Allowed values Usages Party (1-n) Resource Use Time Place 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide

Relate Destroy Each of these uses has different specialized children Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc You can go as far as you like with verbs ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Usages Party (1-n) Resource Use

Time Place 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Each of these uses has different specialized children Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc You can go as far as you like with verbs ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess

but better to keep the verb simple and look at the other variables in the event. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 ERMI modelling at present Complex element: Permission Permitted Use: ILL Method: Print or Fax Constraint: Record-keeping required This slide adapted from ERMI presentation Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Usages ERMI Usage example in ONIX model Fax, Post Party ILL Resource Use Act Time

Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Record Keeping Place Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) 3 3 2 2 1 1 Resource Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Place Time Party

Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P1}AcademicLibrary 3 3 2 2 1 1 Resource Party Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose

Place Place Time Party Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P1}AcademicLibrary 3 3 2 2 1 1 Resource

Party Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide Place Time Party Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {R1}DigitalResource {P1}AcademicLibrary

Resource {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} Party 3 3 2 2 1 1 Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide Time Party Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual

document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {R1}DigitalResource {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} Party 3 3 2 2 1 1 Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide

Place {P2} Access, Possess Time Party Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party {P2} [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {R1}DigitalResource {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}PartCopyOf{P1}

Party 3 3 2 2 1 1 Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide Place {P2} Access, Purpose> Possess NonCommercialUse Time Party Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party {P2}

[Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {R1}DigitalResource {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} Party 3 3 2 2 1 1 Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place

Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide {P2} Access, Purpose> Possess NonCommercialUse Place Time Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} {P3}AcademicLibrary Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party {P2} [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 ONIX Message Usage Model examples

InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {R1}DigitalResource {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} Party {P1}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} 3 3 2 2 1 1 Verbs Parties Resources Usages Purpose Place Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource {P1}Provide {P2} Access, Purpose> Possess NonCommercialUse

Place {L1}Country Time {P3}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} {P3}AcademicLibrary Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Party {P2} [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] Rightscom 2005 The value of ontologies An ontology provides the semantic building blocks for a data model or implementation model. It can also provide tools for managing allowed values and mapping data from different schemes. Dublin Core is an example of a metadata scheme without an ontology. There is no clear model of the relationships between its terms. This has made consistent

implementation problematic and limited the potential of DC. FRBR would benefit from an ontology, especially with the emphasis being placed on relationships. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 FRBR thoughts from a slightly different planet The FRBR systems you are designing now will be mainstream in several years time. Is your world going to get simpler or more complex? Can you predict the functional requirements you will have for 2010 or 2015? If not, then focus on the underlying flexibility of the model. Settle the model and put the change management into an ontology. Use what is useful in other peoples standards and metadata, and find ways of helping them make them better so that you can get more benefit. Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005 Things should be as simple as possible, but not simpler. (Einstein) Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 Rightscom 2005

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