The Importance of Invasive Species Amanda Hodges, Ph.D.

The Importance of Invasive Species Amanda Hodges, Ph.D.

The Importance of Invasive Species Amanda Hodges, Ph.D. Entomology/Nematology Dept. University of Florida Exotic Species & Biosecurity Issues ALS 4161/6 Objectives Understand Terminology.

Be Familiar with Historical Case Study Examples. Case Studies: Key Concepts How did the pest arrive? Is this still a possible pathway for an

invasive species today? How was the problem solved and what did we learn? What was the cost of invasion? Introductory Terminology

Invasive: a pest that is adversely affecting the environment or an agricultural commodity. Introductory Terminology Exotic: a species not known to originate from a given geographical region. Introductory Terminology

Pest: any animal, disease, plant, or other organism that is damaging an agricultural commodity, urban environment, or natural area. Introductory Terminology Limited Distribution: refers to an organism that is not native or widely distributed in its new environment. Introductory Terminology

Eradication: removal of an introduced exotic pest from its newly established geographical distribution. Exotic, Not Invasive USDA-ARS Photo Gallery http://www.ars.gov/ Exotic, Not Invasive USDA-ARS Photo Gallery http://www.ars.gov/ Early Spread of Invasive Species

Pests moved west to California with new agricultural crops in the 1800s. Human travel also affected pest movement. Case Study Examples

Cottony cushion scale Powdery mildew Grape phylloxera

Purple Loosestrife Indian Mongoose Cottony Cushion Scale Photo Credits: Sturgis McKeever, Georgia Southern University, http:// www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 1482005 Cottony Cushion Scale

When? 1868 Where? California What? Lemon from Australia Photo Credit: Adr Kaowatha, German Wikipedia administrator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lemon.jpg

Solutions? Try Tested Options: San Jose Scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Photo Credits: Eugene Nelson, Colorado State University http://www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 5360549 The Answer: Foreign Exploration The People

C.V. Riley, USDA Norman Colman, California Commission of Agriculture Albert Koeble, 1888 International Exposition in Melbourne Cottony Cushion Scale

Found: Vedalia ladybird beetle, Rodolia cardinalis When? October 15, 1888 Koeble shipped live beetles to USDA scientist Coquillet

1889 beetles released to growers Outcomes Orange shipments tripled from Los Angeles County in one year. Program Costs:

thousands of dollars University of Florida IFAS Information an Communications Photo Gallery Savings: http://ics.ifas.ufl.edu/pictures/ Image No. 00039S Estimated millions of dollars. Powdery Mildew,

Erysiphe necator Photo Credit: University of California Regents, Image available at: http://www.winesandvines.com/template.cfm?section=features&content=5895 Powdery Mildew Native to the eastern U.S. Native North

American vines had some resistance to powdery mildew and other diseases. Photo Credit: William Brown, Colorado State University, powdery mildew on wine grapes. http://www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 5356661 Powdery Mildew England 1845: First European Report

1850s: Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa Tony Hassall, Queensland Government Website,Infected Chardonnay grape vine leaves Image available at: http://dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/ rde/dpi/hs.xsl/ 26_6192_ENA_HTML.htm

Powdery Mildew 50-90% Crop Losses Starvation, Emigration from Madeira, Spain

Railroad Tracks in Italy Destroyed Powdery Mildew Who? Versailles: A.M. Grison and Pierre Ducharte Paris: J.H. Lveill England: Reverend M.J. Berkeley and E.

Tucker Venice: Giovanni Zanardini Pathogen biology was studied and sulfur-based solutions were used to spray for powdery mildew. Sulfur solutions available in the

1860s. Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosophaira vitifoliae Photo Credit: Whitney Colorado State University, http://www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 5083002 Grape Phylloxera Europe: 1863

California: 1870s Weakens and kills host by feeding on roots. Root damage from grape phylloxera Photo Credit: Jack Kell Clark, University of California Regents, UC Statewide IPM Project http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/D/I-HO-DVIT-CD.004.html

The Solution? The Solution Replant vineyards with Eastern U.S. phylloxera-resistant rootstock. People C.V. Riley, Illinois

and Missouri Eugene Hilgard, California George Husmann, Missouri and California Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria Photo Credit: Barry Rice, sarracenia.com http://www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 5391680

Purple Loosestrife Introduced in the 19th Century ~115,000 hectares per year newly infested

Changing wetland Photo Credit: John M. Randall, The Nature Conserv habitats http://www.forestryimages.org/ Image No. 5392329 Purple Loosestrife Habitat loss threatens 44 native plants and animals.

Occurs nationwide. ~$45 million/year in management and forage losses Photo Credit: Bog Turtle, Clemmys muhlenbengil, United States Army Corps of Engineers, Wikipedia Indian Mongoose, Herpestes aurpunctatus Photo Located at:

http://www.hawar-islands.com/blog/index.php/2007/12/02/friday_30th _november Indian Mongoose Introduced in the 1800s for the biological control of rats in sugarcane. Jamaica, Puerto

Rico, West Indian Islands, and Hawaii Posted on the USDA Forest Service Website, http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/caribbean/wildlife-facts/2002/wildlife -facts-august-2002.shtml originally obtained from animal Indian Mongoose Mongoose controlled Asiatic, but not European rat

Fed on native, ground-nesting birds as well as amphibians and reptiles Photo: European rat, http://www.ew.govt.nz/Environmentalinformation/Plant-and-animal-pests/Animal-pests/Rats-and-feralcats/ Indian Mongoose

Vector of rabies and leptospirosis in Puerto Rico and other Caribbean Islands ~$50 million estimated annual damages in Hawaii and Puerto Rico References

Hayes, K.R., and S.C. Barry 2008. Are there any consistent predictors of invasion success? Biol. Invasions. 10: 483506. Olson, L.J. 2006. The economics of terrestrial invasive species: A review of the literature. Agricultural and resource economics review. 178-194. Pimental, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2000.

Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the U.S. BioScience. 50: 53-65. Iranzo, S., A.L. Olmstead, and P.W. Rhode. 2003. Historical perspectives on exotic pests and diseases in California. in Exotic pests and diseases: biology and economics of biosecurity. Sumner, D.A. (ed.). Required Readings ALS 4161 and 6166

Pimental, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the U.S. BioScience. 50: 53-65. ALS 6166 Only Olson, L.J. 2006. The economics of terrestrial invasive species: A review of the literature. Agricultural and resource economics review. 178-194 . Class Discussion Topics

Federal and/or state governments should strictly regulate all organisms that threaten agricultural and natural areas. Federal and/or state governments should not regulate University researchers. Their education and experience precludes them from making any mistakes regarding the accidental release of invasive species.

Federal and/or state governments should have regulations, permits, and requirements, but should also work towards an improved public outreach effort to support awareness regarding exotic, invasive species.

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