Trace Minerals The Trace Minerals Main trace minerals

Trace Minerals The Trace Minerals Main trace minerals

Trace Minerals The Trace Minerals Main trace minerals (microminerals) Iron Copper Zinc Iodine

Selenium Manganese Chromium Molybdenum Less than 5g of in the body. Daily needs less than 20mg. Amount in plant foods depends on amount in soil.

Bioavailability can vary according to: Individual nutritional status Other foods eaten Form of the mineral Presence of other minerals Minimal digestion required for absorption Some are recycled (such as iron).

Roles of Trace Minerals Most function as Co-Factors! Form part of an Enzyme Complex Metalloenzymes: An enzyme that contains a metal ion cofactor (for activity) Many Also:

Assist Hormone functions Provide structure of Bones and Teeth Maintain health of Red Blood Cells Component of Antioxidants Deficiencies and Toxicity - difficult to determine. Recommended intakes ULs difficult to establish.

Iron (Fe) Most abundant mineral on Earth and the most abundant trace mineral in the body Iron deficiency = most common nutrient deficiency in world. Iron-deficiency anemia common in women and children

80% of iron consumed in foods Two forms of iron: Heme iron Non-heme iron

Heme Iron Heme Iron is in Hemoglobin and Myoglobin and Cytochromes Found in animal foods Meat, poultry, fish

Ferrous iron Fe2+ Glycated Hemoglobin = HbA1c (sugar coated Hb!) Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) Diabetes Mellitus = higher glycated Hbs this is assoc with: Cardiovascular Disease, Nephropathy and Retinopathy. Heme

containing cytochrome! Iron Absorption and Transport Non- heme Iron is in Plant foods - Grains, vegetables Ferric iron Fe3+

Absorption-Transport mechanism of iron is tightly controlled to prevent toxicity. Iron Bioavailability Factors: Molecular form: = ferrous iron (Fe+2) or ferric iron (Fe+3)

Iron status of individual Types of food eaten at the same time Heme iron 2-3 X more bioavailable than non-heme iron. Non-heme iron binds to: Oxalates (leafy vegetables) Polyphenols (tea and coffee) Non-heme iron absorption: Vitamin C

Meat, fish, and poultry (MFP) factor Best Dietary Sources of Iron Hormone Hepcidin controls Iron absorption Inhibits ferroportin from transporting iron out of the enterocyte (gut cell) into the portal blood

Fe Stores: Low iron stores increase intestinal iron absorption. High iron stores decrease intestinal iron absorption. Excess iron is excreted in the feces. Iron Recycling 95% of iron in body recycled and reused!

*Iron from degraded hemoglobin is salvaged. This is used to make new Red Blood Cells, incorporated into enzymes, stored in ferritin Most iron losses occur from bleeding. E Metabolism - Part of cytochromes in mitochondria Immune function For production of lymphocytes and macrophages

Protects cell membranes from free radical damage Participates in oxidation-reduction reactions Fe & Brain Function - helps enzymes of neurotransmitters Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin. Adult Females: 19-50: 18 mg/day, older: 8 mg/day Adult Males: 8 mg/day

Vegetarians needs 1.8 times higher iron levels. Those with Liver disease cannot store as much iron in the body Iron Toxicity From supplements or in individuals with the genetic disorder hemochromatosis too much

dietary iron absorbed. Symptoms = constipation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. UL: 45 mg/day Accidental overdose of supplements with iron leading cause of poisoning deaths in children under age 6.

Iron overload = Buildup of excess stores of iron over years. Can damage organs and tissues Hemochromatosis can cause overload. May stimulate free radical production Iron Deficiency Iron-deficiency anemia Hemoglobin levels decrease

Oxygen delivery to tissues diminished Symptoms = fatigue, weakness, ability to fight infection. Copper (Cu) 2 Forms of Copper in Body The oxidized form: Cupric (Cu2+) The reduced form: Cuprous (Cu+)

Absorbed in small intestine (based on need) Very little stored in the body Bioavailability is enhanced by Amino Acids. Phytates, zinc, & other trace minerals bioavailability Metabolic Functions of Copper Metalloenzymes and Proteins component

oxidation reactions and reducing free radical damage Part of enzyme that reduces iron to ferric form Functions of Copper E Production Links the proteins collagen and elastin together in connective tissue Synthesizes Melanin

Part of superoxide dismutase, helping protect against free radical damage Role in blood clotting & healthy immune system Adults: 900 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day; UL: 10,000 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day Copper Toxicity and Deficiency Toxicity causes stomach pains and cramps,

nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and liver damage Deficiency Rare* - Fatigue and weakness *Premature infants fed formulas Genetic Disorders of Copper Metabolism Menkes Disease Copper transport disorder - Accumulation can cause: developmental problems, osteoporosis, cardiovascular

disease and death. Wilson's Disease Prevents excretion of copper through the bile Accumulation can cause liver and brain damage. Zinc (Zn2+) Very small amounts in almost every cell of body Mostly bone & muscle

Involved in the function of more than 100 metalloenzymes, for protein synthesis Absorption in small intestine, bound and stored metallothionine. Zinc in blood is bound to albumin. Excess Zn is excreted in the feces.

Absorption is when: 1) High levels of non-heme iron are present 2) Phytates and diets high in fiber are consumed Eating animal proteins Zn absorption. Zinc Recycling Part of Pancreatic Juices reabsorbed by intestine. Zinc is recycled and reused by pancreas.

Zinc not reused is excreted in feces. Small losses in urine, sweat, sloughed-off skin and hair Functions of Zinc Wound Healing Maintains healthy Immune System Acts as an antioxidant

Reduces inflammation DNA and RNA synthesis - Turns genes on and off Part of enzymes/proteins for skin repair Enhanced Skin and Hair Cell Proliferation Improves Taste Perception! Reduces Macular Degeneration Zinc Toxicity: UL 40 mg/day

Stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea Excess can: Interfere with Copper absorption Suppress the immune system Adult Zn Needs: Lower HDL cholesterol 8 to 11 mg/day

Zn Deficiency: Delayed growth in children; delayed sexual maturation Hair loss, Skin rash Loss of Appetite; Impaired sense of taste Diarrhea Impotence Selenium (Se)

Seleno-proteins (enzymes) and Seleno-methionine (in diet) Absorption based on need. Stored in variety of tissues - Kidney maintain homeostasis Metabolism of Selenium Functions of Selenium

Se - Regulates Thyroid hormones Antioxidant role - helps fight cancer Glutathione Peroxidase: Prevents free radical damage Slows tumors and may reduce death rate from lung, colon, and prostate cancer Adults: 55 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day

Se Toxicity UL: 400 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day => Selenosis Brittle nails and hair, which may fall out + GI tract discomfort, skin rash, garlicky breath, fatigue, nervous damage Se Deficiency May trigger Keshan disease (congestive cardiomyopathy)

Possible changes in thyroid hormone Chromium (Cr) Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) active form in food. Very little chromium is absorbed. Stored in a variety of tissues. Excreted in the urine, with high sugar intake.

Functions of Cr Increases insulin effectiveness in cells May improve insulin's effects on metabolism and storage of energy-yielding nutrients May improve blood glucose levels in individuals with Diabetes Mellitus or Pre-Diabetes May prevent or improve Metabolic Syndrome

Food Chromium Source (g/100 g) Mussel 128 Brazil nut

100 Oyster 57 Date (dried) 29 Pear 27 Brown shrimp

26 Wholemeal flour 21 Tomato 20 Mushroom 17 Broccoli

16 Barley 13 (wholegrain) Hazelnut 12 Pork chop 10

Adults: 20 to 35 g/dayg/day Cr Toxicity - No known risks from foods or supplements May absorption, transportation, and utilization of iron by binding to transferrin

Cr Deficiency Rare in U.S. - May blood glucose and fatty acids Iodine (I) Iodide (ionic form) of iodine = essential mineral. Metabolic Functions of Iodine Thyroid gland traps iodide to make hormone

thyroxine (T4), which converts to triiodothyronine (T3). Functions of Iodine Thyroid Hormones Regulate: Metabolism - Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Reproduction Energy Production in the TCA cycle

Nerve, Muscle, and Heart Function Adults: 150 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day: UL: 1,100 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day Amount consumed in food depends on the amount of iodine in soil, water, and fertilizer used to grow foods. I Toxicity Impairs thyroid function and synthesis and release of

thyroxine I Deficiency Simple Goiter: Enlarged thyroid gland Secondary Goiter from Goitrogens: Substances in food that reduce the use of iodine by thyroid gland, resulting in goiter: Rutabagas, cabbage, soybeans, and peanuts

Iodine Toxicity and Deficiency Deficiency During pregnancy Damage to brain of the developing baby Cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism)

Abnormal sexual development Mental retardation Dwarfism Manganese (Mn) Part of, or activates, many enzymes in body Mostly found in bones and accessory organs of the digestive tract.

Metabolic functions Cofactor for a variety of metallo-enzymes for Metabolism of Carbs, Fats and Amino Acids Formation of bone matrix Helps build cartilage supporting the joints Mn Daily needs - Adults: 1.8 to .3 mg/day Food Sources:

Whole grains Nuts Legumes Tea Vegetables Fruits Mn Toxicity

Exposure to environmental pollutants Symptoms: Damage to Nervous System Symptoms resembling Parkinson's Disease Mn Deficiency - Rare Phytates, calcium, and iron can absorption. Rash and scaly skin

Molybdenum (Mo) Function: Cofactor for many metallo-enzymes Involved in metabolism of certain Amino Acids Oxidation-Reduction reactions Daily needs: Adults: 45 g/day; UL: 10,000 g/dayg /day Foods: Legumes, grains, Nuts, Dairy products

Leafy green vegetables Mo Toxicity Shown to cause reproductive problems and kidney disorders in animals UL: 2 mg/day Mo Deficiency

Not seen in healthy individuals

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