SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY At the end of a sunny day at the beach, you often notice that while the sand has become quite hot, the water has stayed cool. SAME amount of HEAT ENERGY Small TEMPERATURE RISE WATER Large TEMPERATURE RISE SAND Putting the SAME AMOUNT OF HEAT into some materials gives a BIGGER TEMPERATURE RISE than in other materials Comparing water and cooking oil 1kg of water 1kg of cooking oil 60 rise
30 rise 50C 20C 20C 80C .heating Identical rings turned on for 1 minute The water heats up less than the oil. The SAME AMOUNT OF HEAT produces HALF the TEMPERATURE RISE in the water as in the oil Comparing water and cooking oil 2 What would we need to do to make the SAME TEMPERATURE RISE in the water as in the oil? 1kg of water 1kg of cooking oil 60 rise 60 rise
80C 20C Heat for 2 minutes 20C 80C Heat for 1 minute To make the SAME TEMP RISE we need to put TWICE AS MUCH HEAT into the water as the oil To make the SAME TEMP RISE we need to put TWICE AS MUCH HEAT into the water as the oil This means water has twice the CAPACITY to absorb and store heat energy as oil. Materials vary quite widely as to the amount of heat they can absorb for the same temperature rise. There are no simple patterns in this although metals tend to have low capacities. water cooking oil Silica
(rock) copper SAME AMOUNT OF HEAT PUT IN 5C rise 10C rise 20C rise water cooking oil silica (rock) We only get the TEMP RISE with water than 40C with rock for the SAME AMOUNT
rise copper of HEAT Two ways to look at heat capacity 16 mins HEAT FOR 8 mins 4 mins 10C rise 10C rise 10C rise water cooking oil silica (rock) We need to put in 2 mins 4x the AMOUNT
OF HEAT into water than rock 10C to get the SAME rise TEMP RISE copper So we say water has a HIGHER HEAT CAPACITY than rock See those results again.. How to MEASURE HEAT CAPACITY? To compare the heat capacity of materials, we need to measure: How many JOULES of heat energy are needed to make each degree temperature rise 1C rise To make a FAIR comparison between materials we also need to compare the same amount of.. mass (kg)? volume (m3)?
particles (moles)? All of these are used to compare heat capacities, but for Leaving Cert we use SPECIFIC Heat Capacity which compares the same amount of MASS. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY (c) is. How many JOULES of heat energy are needed to raise the temperature of: each kg by each C How many Joules ? 1 kg 1C rise Working it out Specific heat capacity = c Given in the exam as: =
Number of Joules of HEAT (E) Number of kg Number of C of of MASS (m) TEMPERATURE CHANGE () E m c = E m Heat = mass x SHC x temp change SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITIES Air (typical room conditions) 1012 Lead
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