Welcome to Level 1 Safeguarding Children Presented by

Welcome to Level 1 Safeguarding Children Presented by

Welcome to Level 1 Safeguarding Children Presented by [Insert Trainer name] Valid From September 2019 to March 2020 1 Aims of the session To understand your own and others role & responsibilities To recognise

factors which could indicate a child is at risk Legislation To enable staff to understand threshold criteria Handling disclosures How to make a referral

Information sharing and multi-agency working The role of Stoke-on-Trent & Staffordshire Safeguarding Children Board Safeguarding policies and procedures To confidently carry

out procedures when faced with a concern about a child's welfare To improve understanding of multi agency practice so that families get the right help at the right time To highlight key messages and lessons from Child Safeguarding

Practise Reviews 2 REMEMBER ALWAYS KEEP THE CHILD IN FOCUS 3 Safeguarding or Child Protection? What is child protection? What is safeguarding? Who do you think is responsible for safeguarding children? 4

Who should I speak to?... In this establishment, the person you should talk to whenever there is a concern about a childs welfare is: [insert name] or, in their absence: [insert name] 5 Key Legislation and Guidance Children Acts 1989 and 2004 Child and Social Work Act 2017 Education Act 2002 and 2011

Working Together to Safeguard Children, March 2018 Keeping Children Safe in Education, September 2019 Stoke-on-Trent & Staffordshire Safeguarding Children Board Policies and Procedures Your organisations own safeguarding policies and procedures 6 Child Development Those working with children should have an understanding of child development The quality of care that a child receives can have an impact on their health and development As children grow, they continue to develop skills and abilities, from infancy through to adolescence

Plans and interventions to safeguard and promote the welfare of children should be based on clear assessment of the childs development and the difficulties the child may be experiencing Action should be timely, appropriate for the childs age and stage of development 7 Child Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Someone may abuse a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to prevent harm Children can be abused in a family or in an institution or community setting: by those known to them or, more rarely by a stranger for example, via the internet Children can be abused by an adult, adults or another

child or children Where you have reasonable cause to believe or suspect that a child or young person may be suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm you should make a referral. 8 Physical Abuse May involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child May also be caused

when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a child 9 Common sites for non-accidental injuries EYES - bruising, black (particularly both eyes) SKULL - fracture or bleeding under skull (from shaking) CHEEK/SIDE OF FACE - bruising, finger marks

MOUTH - torn frenulum SHOULDERS - bruising, grasp marks GENITALS - bruising BACK } Linear bruising. Outline of belt/buckles. Scalds/burns

BUTTOCKS } THIGHS } Courtesy of Warrington Borough Council 10 Emotional Abuse Is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the childs emotional development

It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate or valued only insofar as they met the needs of another person It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or making fun of what they say or how they communicate It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. 11

Emotional Abuse may involve: seeing or hearing the ill treatment of another serious bullying (including cyberbullying) causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger And/or exploitation or corruption of children Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of

maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone 12 Sexual Abuse Involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. Activities may involve physical contact including assault by penetration or non penetrative acts. Non contact activities e.g. involving children looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet)

Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children. 13 Neglect Is the persistent failure to meet a childs basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the childs health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. 14

Windscreen Threshold Model 15 16 Lets recap 17 Identifying your concerns: Try and sort out in your mind Why are you worried? What have you seen? What have you heard from others? What has been said to you directly?

Try and be as clear as you can about why you are worried but do not be afraid to listen to your instinct that something just does not seem right. Always share your concerns 18 Listen to the child rather than directly question Never stop a child who is freely recalling Never agree to keep a secret Make record of

discussion Try to obtain the young persons agreement to the matter being referred to designated member of staff/other agencies Keep the child informed Record all subsequent

events up to time of the discussion Speak to the child alone Do not take photographs of injuries 19 Information Sharing Check out Your agency/organisations policy on sharing information SSSCB Information Sharing Procedure (1J) Check out non-statutory guidance

Information Sharing 2018 Advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers Further Guidance on Legal Issues 20 YES You should either Initiate an Early Help Assessment Or Make a Child in Need Referral Consent to share

information? NO You should not seek consent if to do so Information can be shared, without consent when it increases risk of significant harm to child/ young person is in the public interest.

places an adult at increased risk of serious harm Or a Child Protection Referral leads to unjustified delay in making enquires prejudices the prevention, detection or prosecution of a serious crime protects children from

significant harm Protects adults from serious harm prevents crime and disorder promotes the welfare of children 21 7 Golden Rules for Information Sharing 1. Remember that the Data Protection Act and Human Rights Law are not a barrier to sharing information 2. Be open and honest 3. Seek advice if in any doubt 4. Share with informed consent where appropriate

5. Consider safety and well-being 6. Necessary, proportionate, relevant, accurate, timely and secure 7. Keep a record 22 Concerns about a child: Record Keeping Confidential and kept secure Communicated clearly and appropriately

Separate fact from opinion Relevant Clearly written, dated with time and signed Accurate Immediate and indicate action taken

Free from speculation Free from jargon abbreviations 23 Historic Serious Case Reviews Maria Colwell Victoria Climbie Jessica

Chapman & Holly Wells 1973 2000 2002 Jasmine Beckford Lauren Wright Peter

Connelly 1984 2000 2007 24 Serious Case Review Daniel Pelka Daniel was murdered by his mum and stepfather. Issues identified by school

staff: He died from a brain injury Always hungry Taking food at every opportunity Scavenging in bins Growing thinner Bruises and unexplained injuries Poor attendance 25 Recap Safeguarding

Children Record Keeping Information Sharing Confidence 26 Stoke-on-Trent & Staffordshire Safeguarding Children Board 27

Child Welfare: Employment: The employer must apply for an employment licence Child must be over 13 years old Child cannot work before 7.00am or after 7.00pm Entertainment: A licence or exemption is required for all children between birth and compulsory school leaving age to enable them to take part in modelling, film, theatre, television and photographic work. Chaperones must be licensed by law if they come into contact with children who are not their own. 28 Local Safeguarding Priorities Stoke-on-Trent & Staffordshire Children Safeguarding Board

29 Serious Violence The Serious Violence Strategy, introduced in 2018, sets out the government response to serious violence and recent increase in knife crime, gun crime and homicide. The impact of serious crime on individuals and the community is significant All staff should be aware of indicators, which may signal that children are at risk from, or involved with serious crime 30 Serious Violence Increased absence from school

Change in friendships or relationships with older individuals or groups Signs of self-harm or significant change in wellbeing Signs of assault or unexplained injuries Unexplained gifts or new possessions could also indicate that children have been approached by, or are involved with, individuals associated with criminal networks or gangs 31 Contextual Safeguarding Contextual Safeguarding is an approach to understanding, and responding to, young peoples experiences of significant harm beyond their families. It recognises that the different relationships that young

people form in their neighborhoods, schools and online can feature violence and abuse. Parents and carers have little influence over these contexts, and young peoples experiences of extrafamilial abuse can undermine parent-child relationships 32 County Lines County lines is the police term for urban gangs supplying drugs to suburban areas and market and coastal towns using dedicated mobile phones lines or deal lines. It involves child criminal exploitation as gangs use children and vulnerable people to move drugs and money. County lines is a major, cross-cutting issues involving drugs, violence, gangs, safeguarding, criminal and sexual exploitation, modern slavery and missing persons

33 Signs To Look Out For Persistently going missing from school or home and/or being found out-of-area Unexplained acquisition of money, clothes, or mobile phones Excessive receipt of texts/phone calls Relationships with controlling/older individuals or groups Leaving home / care without explanation Suspicion of physical assault / unexplained injuries Parental concerns Carrying weapons Significant decline in school results/performance Gang association or isolation from peers or social networks Self-harm or significant changes in emotion well-being

34 Contextual Safeguarding Missing Children Total of 739 children from Staffordshire went missing from home and care, with a total of 2284 missing episodes. The number of children going missing this year has remained stable. However, the number of episodes has increased by almost a third (558) There are two young people who have gone missing over 50 times this year The majority of young people (73%) going missing are over 14 years of age; 15 year olds continue to be the most prevalent age 35

Human Trafficking The Modern Slavery Act 2015 places a duty on specified public authorities to make a referral through the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to the UK Trafficking Centre and the Home Office when agencies come into contact with a child who may have been exploited or trafficked. 36 Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) Sexualised risk taking including on the internet

Drugs/alcohol use Regularly coming home late or going missing Unaccounted for monies or goods Gang association Self harming Non school attendance or excluded due to behaviour

Getting into cars with unknown or known CSE adults Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Pregnancy/ miscarriage/ terminations Sexual Violence and Harassment between children Sexual violence and harassment can occur between two children of

any age and sex. It can also occur through a group of children sexually assaulting or sexually harassing a single child or group of children Sexual violence is when sexual offences are referred to:rape; assault by penetration or sexual assault Sexual harassment is unwanted conduct of a sexual nature:sexual comments(lewd comments and sexualised names ,sexual remarks about clothes and appearance). Sexual jokes/taunting. Physical behaviour(brushing against someone, touching clothes, displaying pictures, photos of sexual nature). Upskirting is now a criminal offence and KCSIE 2019 makes particular reference Online sexual harassment 38 Online safety Online abuse is any type of abuse that happens on the internet, facilitated through technology like computers, tablets, mobile phones and other internet-enabled

devices When creating safe environments for children you must consider online safety as it provides platforms that can facilitate harm to children and young people Ensure you have online safety policies and procedures. (Include within staff codes of conduct) Know how to recognise online abuse and harm Report concerns about online abuse or inappropriate behaviour immediately 39 Self harm The majority of Young People who self harm have no intention of ending their life. Most Young People do so to manage their feelings. However it is important to note young people who carry

out self harm are at an increased risk of suicide. ( MHF 2017) 40 Self Harm The rates of self harm in the UK have increased over the past decade. (Young Mind 2016) 1 In 5 14 year old females self harm (children`s society August 2018)) 1 in 10 Teenage boys self harm (children`s society August 2018) Take it seriously; never assume it is attention seeking or manipulative behaviour Always treat it as an important issue for the young

person. 41 Self Harm Cycle Shame Grief Emotional Suffering Emotional overload Temporar y relief

Self Harm Panic Why

Loss of a parent Parental illness or drug/ alcohol abuse Severe lack of communication within the home Being subject to very high expectations at home and/or school Neglect and deprivation Sexual, physical and or emotional abuse Fear, shame or oppression regarding sexuality Bullying Racial harassment Chronic illness or disability Suicide Estimated 19,000 suicide attempts by adolescents in the UK per year- equals one every 30 minutes (Hawton and Van Heeringen 2002)

149 children (aged 10 -19) in England committed suicide in 2014Almost 3 children every week (PHE 2016) Most young people who self harm DO NOT intend to kill themselves BUT a history of self harm is common among young people who attempt suicide. (MHF 2017) Warning behaviours to watch for Any signs of planning Feeling trapped or hopeless about a situation Changes in normal routines, including eating, sleeping, socialising Giving away belongings or getting affairs in order Acting out of character, such as becoming very outgoing after having been shy

When someone tells you they feel suicidal Take it seriously Be brave enough to ask the question ` Have you made any plans? ` Act on the information they share Use the SSCB Policy, follow the flow chart (see SSCB policy 4U) Follow your agency guidelines Such admissions should always be listened to and taking action is always the best choice Pathway SSCB section 4U Honour-Based Abuse

Encompasses crimes which have been committed to protect the honour of the family and/or community. All are abuse regardless of the motivation, for example Female genital mutilation (FGM) Forced Marriage Breast Ironing Prevent The UK faces a continuing threat from both international and domestic terrorism and violent extremism, which can emerge from any community and can be inspired by a wide range of causes. The current threat from terrorism in the UK can include the exploitation of vulnerable people, including children of all ages, young people and adults and involve them in terrorism or activity in support of terrorism. Young people are being recruited into

groups promoting hatred, discrimination and sometimes violence. Prevent is everyone s business! Prevent: How to Refer Notice Practitioner has a concern about an individual in relation to radicalisation / extremism. Check Are there any reasons for the change in

behaviour? Share Discuss concern with colleagues / safeguarding lead Refer If practitioner still has concerns, contact Staffordshire Police Prevent Team Domestic Abuse and the Abuse of Children Prolonged or regular exposure to domestic abuse can have a serious impact on a childs

development and emotional wellbeing, even when a parent tries to protect their children. The negative impact of domestic abuse is made worse when combined with alcohol, drug misuse or poor mental health 51 Allegations against staff and volunteers Has the person: behaved in a way that has harmed a child, or may have harmed a child; possibly committed a criminal offence against or related to a child; or behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates they may pose a risk of harm to

children. 52 Where to Refer MASH - First Response Team/LADO 0800 13 13 126 www.staffordshire.gov.uk/reportconcern or MASH - Police 101 or Emergency Duty Service (out of hours) 0345 604 2886 For Stoke on Trent local authority referrals 01782 235100 53

Managing Professional Disagreement All agencies are responsible for ensuring that their staff are supported and know how to appropriately escalate inter-agency concerns and disagreements about decisions being made about a child or young persons wellbeing If in doubt seek advice from your manager and/or your designated person For more guidance please refer to the SSSCB Escalation procedure 7B on the SSSCB website. REMEMBERbe confident and challenge when you need to! 54 Key learning from local serious case reviews

See, listen and hear childrenmake sure theyre visible in your assessments Think whole family; are there any other children connected to the family, if so who are they? Involve men; be flexible to their needs and listen to their story

Do your homework; find out who else is working with your family and involve them in any assessments and support you offer Check with other professionals that what you are seeing and hearing is the same Get better at recognising and responding to risk its everyones responsibility Think about the importance and relevance of the information you hold,

who needs it and why? What are the consequences if you dont share it? Actively work with other professionals and be clear on everyone's roles and responsibilities If you dont agree with the decision of another professional, use the SSCB Escalation Policy and Procedure www.staffsscb.org.uk/procedures

SSCB policies and procedures are there to support and guide you and 55 to help you work better with children and families . Key Messages and Next Steps What have you learned? What will you do next? How? 56 Any Questions? 57

We all Need a Hero 58 Thank you for your attendance today and I hope you have enjoyed the course Please complete the evaluation form 59

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