Dr. Fadjry Djufry Head of IAARD Dr. Yuliantoro

Dr. Fadjry Djufry Head of IAARD Dr. Yuliantoro

Dr. Fadjry Djufry Head of IAARD Dr. Yuliantoro Baliadi Head of ILETRI Dr. Haris Syahbuddin Head of ICFORD CASSAVA POLICIES AND PRIORITIES IN INDONESIA Fadjry Djufry, Haris Syahbuddin, Yuliantoro Baliadi & Kartika Noerwijati INDONESIAN AGENCY FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURAL THE REPUBLIK OF INDONESIA WORKSHOP ACIAR CASSAVA VALUE CHAIN Pematang Siantar, 1-5 July 2019 2 EXISTING CONDITION OF CASSAVA IN INDONESIA

At present, cassava is not a priority commodity in the ministry of agriculture program. Focus of activities are still achieving self sufficiency for paddy, corn, soybean, onion, meat, sugar, red chili, coffee, cocoa, palm oil, and rubber. Cassava actually has an important role in supporting food security and food diversification in Indonesia. Cassava has high yield potential, high carbohydrate, tolerant to drought, tolerant to poor soil, so it has enormous potential to support food security in Indonesia and even the world, because Indonesia has set a target for 2045 as the worlds food barn. Cassava and other tubers crops will play an important role. By considering the important of the function of cassava as food, as raw material for various industries, and cassava has high economic value, it is expected that cassava can become national priority comodity besides rice, maize and soybean. 4 CASSAVA ECONOMIC VALUE The cassava harvested area in Indonesia in 2015 reached

949,916 ha with a total production of 21.8 million tons, if the price of cassava was IDR 1,000 / kg, the value would reach IDR 21.8 trillion. If calculated following derivative products, the trade value of cassava can reach IDR 100 trillion, defeating soybeans about IDR 20 trillion. (Ahmad Subagyo, 2017) 5 CASSAVA IN INDONESIA FAO (2017): The main cassava producers in the world: Nigeria (55 M tones), Thailand (31 M tones), Indonesia (20 M tones). 25.0 20.0 0.8 15.0 0.6

10.0 0.4 Area Production 0.2 0.0 2014 2015 2016 2017 5.0 0.0 2018 Year Sumber: Kementan ( 2018)

East Java Yogyakarta Province Area (ha x 1 M) 1.0 East Nusa Tenggara Production (tones x 1 M) 1.2 Central Java Area Production West Java Lampung South Sumatera

0 10 20 30 Percentage (%) Cassava main producer area 40 CASSAVA PRODUCTION AREA IN INDONESIA TOTAL AREA IN 2018: 792,952 Ha TREND OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION Year 2014

Harvested area (ha) 1,003,494 Growth Productivity Growth (%) (kw h-1) (%) - Production (Ton) Growth (%) 233.55 -

23,436,384 - 2015 949,916 (5.34) 229.51 (1.73) 21,801,415 (6,98) 2016 822,709 (13.39) 246.26 7.30

20,260,276 (7.07) 2017 772,975 (6.05) 246.50 0.10 19,053,748 (5.96) 2018 792,952 243.91

(1.05) 19,341,233 1.51 239.95 1.15 Avg 2.58 868,409 (5.55) 20,778,611 (4.62) PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF CASSAVA 2018 CASSAVA PRODUCTION

Productivity Total demand UTILIZATION: Direct consumed (3.2 kg/capita/year) Food industry Feed Loss VOLUME 19,341,233 tones 24 t/ ha 23,157,000 tones 12,759,000 t (55.1%) 9,403,000 t (40.6%) 481,000 t (2.1%) 513,000 t (2.2%) CASSAVA VARIETIES DISTRIBUTION 2013-2017 Adira 1, Adira 4, Malang 1, Malang 4, Malang 6, UJ3, UJ5, Darul Hidayah, Litbang UK2, UK1 Agritan

10 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 Malang 4 is the most widely distributed variety 80000 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 60000

40000 20000 0 ra 1 dira 4 Ad i A UJ 3 UJ 5 alang 1 alang 4 alang 6 idayah g UK 2 gritan A M M M ul H Litban UK 1 r a D Total cassava seedlings distributed over the last five years from ILETRI (by varieties)

CASSAVA PROBLEMS 1. Switch to other commodities, such as corn and horticulture commodities. 2. There is no guaranteed price, thus reducing the interest of farmers to cultivate cassava. 3. The increasing volume of tapioca imports and derivative products in the past five years. 4. There are no regulations that protect the commodity of cassava. 12 Cassava Development Policy in Indonesia 1. Increase cassava production 2. Developing cassava agribusiness in an integrated manner by developing the role of the private sector, cooperatives and state-owned enterprises 3. Support the movement to increase food diversification 4. Increasing capital sources that are easily accessible to farmers 5. Improve cassava commodity trading that is conducive to farmers

13 STRATEGY PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT 1 2 EXPANSION OF AREA AND LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 3 4 PRODUCTION SAFEKEEPING MANAGEMENT

IMPROVEMENT a) Productivity improvement b) Use of superior variety c) Application of good cultivation techniqu d) Use of balanced fertilizers e) Controlling plant pest organisms that envronentally friendly f) Adaptive to climate change f) Setting planting time g) Post harvest handling a) Land optimization b) Increase in IP c) Expansion of planting area a) Controlling plant pest organism & impact of climate phenomena b) Reduction in yield loss a) Policy and Regulation support b) Improvement of the agricultural credit system c) Improvement of data and information d) Improving the coordination of

the central, regional and all stakehold 14 CASSAVA PARTNERSHIP PATTERN Installment payment CORE FARMERS BANK AGREEMENT NOTES Net income Cost production Business feasibility aspects PRIMERY COOPERATION

PLASMA FARMERS Marketing 15 TECHNOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES TRANSFER 16 CAPITAL 17 FARMER GROUPS INSTITUTION AND EDUCATION The development of cassava commodities uses the means of farmer groups that have been formed and are still active, the head has been established (tasked with coordinating the activities of group members), the secretary (task of recording activities carried out at each meeting) and treasurer (responsible for dealing with financial issues)

To ensure the implementation of development, it is necessary to try at least one person from the farming group as a motivator who is able to provide a rapid response to innovation and is able to encourage other group members to provide the same response. Groups of cassava commodity development will conduct observations together at the development site, describe and discuss the field findings. The field guide acts as a facilitator to direct the course of group discussions. The development farmer group must follow each planting stage and apply a combination of technological components that are appropriate to the specific location starting from tillage, cultivation, handling of harvest and post-harvest. At each stage of implementation, participating farmers are expected to carry out a series of activities that have been planned and scheduled at the location of cassava commodity development. 18 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION TARGET ACHIEVEMENTS 1. Seed / nursery Provision of quality certified / superior cassava seeds, in coordination with the Directorate

of Food Crops and ILETRI in Malang. 2. Agricultural Infrastructure and Facilities Support for infrastructure, infrastructure and agricultural facilities, coordinating with the Directorate General of Agricultural Infrastructure and Facilities, especially in the allocation of subsidized fertilizers as well as assistance in agricultural farm machinery and post-harvest equipment assistance with the Directorate of PPHP Directorate General of Food Crops and other related agencies. 3. Improvement of Human Resources (HR) To support the improvement of agricultural human resources, coordinate with the Provincial and District / City Counseling Coordination Board and other relevant agencies in a). escort and assistance in managing cassava production, b). increasing competency through training apparatuses and non agricultural apparatus and c). the provision of material for agricultural extension agents which is intended as materials and extension tools in the context of implementing agricultural counseling. 19 GOVERNMENT SUPPORT IN IMPROVING CASSAVA PRODUCTION NO

YEAR AREA (Ha) FACILITIES 1 2010 240 SEEDLINGS & PRODUCTION MEANS 2 2011 6,540 SEEDLINGS & PRODUCTION MEANS

3 2012 300 SEEDLINGS & PRODUCTION MEANS 4 2013 2,080 SEEDLINGS & PRODUCTION MEANS 5 2014 650 FERTILIZER PRODUCTION MEANS

6 2015 3,000 FERTILIZER PRODUCTION MEANS 7 2016 16,425 SEEDLINGS & PRODUCTION MEANS 8 2017 39

PRODUCTION MEANS 9 2018 1,500 PRODUCTION MEANS 20 Cassava Varieties in Indonesia VARIETiES Adira 1 Adira 2 Adira 4 Malang 1 Malang 2 Darul Hidayah UJ 3 UJ 5 Malang 4

Malang 6 Litbang UK 2 UK 1 Agritan Vati 1 Vati 2 *potential yield RELEASED YEAR 1978 1978 1987 1992 1992 1998 2000 2000 2001 2001 2012 2016 2018 2018

YIELD (T/HA) 22.0 22.0 35.0 36.5 31.5 102.1* 20.0 35.0* 25.0 38.0* 39.7 36.4 42.2 30.2 (7 months) 37.46 42.54 PURPOSES Food Tapioca Industry Tapioca Industry Food Food

Food Tapioca Industry Tapioca Industry Tapioca Industry Tapioca Industry Bio-ethanol Early maturity Tapioca Industry Tapioca Industry 21 Example of Cassava Varieties For Food ADIRA 1 MALANG 1 MALANG 4 UK 1 AGRITAN

For Industry Germplasm collection of cassava and other potential tuber crops in ILETRI Malang Cassava accession Sweet potato accession Taro Xanthosoma Amorphophallus Canna Maranta Dioscorea alata Dioscorea hispida Discorea esculenta Discorea bulbifera 325 331 82 accession

16 accession 21 accession 19 accession 12 accession 74 accession 16 accession 54 accession 12 accession VARIOUS CASSAVA PURPOSES Reference : Trubus magazine VARIOUS PROCESSED PRODUCTS FROM CASSAVA SUITABLE CASSAVA CULTIVARS FOR SNACK CHIPS Non-bitter types HCN < 50 ppm Improved varieties : Adira 1 and Malang 1 Local variety: Monggu Promosing clones:

CMM 02014-10 CMM 02048-6 OMM 9076 FOOD PRODUCTS OF FRESH CASSAVA Fresh roots : steamed/fried. fermented. snacks. chips. crisps. and brownies Pasta/: mash 50-100% proportion in snacks, and noodle Suitable criteria: non-bitter type, crunchy texture, extended volume when steamed, not fibreous. INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS OF CASSAVA CASSAVA FLOUR FRESH ROOTS - Sorting - Peeling - Washing

- Shredding/Chipping CHIPS SLICE - Pressing - Drying - Milling - Sieving 80 mesh CASSAVA FLOUR (yield recovery 25-30%) MOCAF = MODIFIED CASSAVA FLOUR with fermentation physical and chemical characteristics approaching wheat flour MOCAF-BASED PRODUCTS As a wheat flour substitute up to 100% for cookies, up to 50% for cakes, 25-30% for bread, 40% for

noodle and 40-80% for deep-fried products INSTANT TIWUL (composite of cassava and mungbean flours) The protein content increased from 1.26% to 3.9% INSTANT TIWUL (composite of cassava and cowpea flours) The protein content increased from 1.26% menjadi 4.5% BUSSINESS INCUBATOR COLLABORATED WITH ILETRI (CAKE TAPE UBIKAYU USES 50% OF CASSAVA FLOUR) MALANG 4 VARIETY IN NORTH SUMATRA (LEFT) AND EAST NUSA TENGGARA (RIGHT) 32 REFERENCES - M. Syakir, Andriko Noto Susanto, & Joko Susilo Utomo. 2017. Root & tuber crops development

policy in Indonesia for food sustainability. - Iletri. 2016. ILETRI profil. - Ali Jamil. 2018. Policy for cassava developing in Indonesia. - Kartika Noerwijati & Abdullah Taufiq. 2019. Cassava in Indonesia. 33 THANK YOU Science Innovation Networks IAARD-ICFORD_ILETRI www.litbang.pertanian.go.id 34

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