DO NOW Read the poem below and discuss the question with your group: Childhood, precious days Alas, how few they were! I will remember them as if in a fog Only in dreams at night can I Identify days long gone Brief, brief happiness of a person in this world of ours. This poem was written by an unknown girl who was left alone in the Lodz ghetto with her brother. What can this poem tell you about life for Jews at this time? THE NAZIS NEXT STEP THE GHETTOS The next step in the Nazis plan was to take over more land in Europe and make it so that only
true Germans, the Aryan race, would be in control. In the Nazis plan for European domination, the certain groups of people that were targeted needed to be controlled firstmainly the Jewish population. The Nazis increased their power over the Jewish populations of Europe by creating ghettos. Ghettos were city districts (often closed in) where the Nazis forced groups of the Jewish population to live under miserable conditions.
PURPOSE OF GHETTOS Ghettos isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities from the nonJewish population and from other Jewish communities. The Nazis wanted to isolate, humiliate, and completely cut off Jews from everyday life. In addition, the ghettos became places for storing people before they were transported to concentration camps.
GHETTOS Jews had very little time to prepare for moving to a ghetto. Often, they were only able to take a few possessions with them. In the ghettos, the Jewish people were allowed to live with families. Children were not allowed to have any kind of schooling, and any kind of social gatherings were forbidden.
GHETTOS Life in the ghettos was usually unbearable. Diseases spread rapidly in the cramped housing. Overcrowding was common. People were always hungry. One apartment might have several families living in it. Nazis purposely tried to starve residents by allowing them to purchase only a small
amount of food. Plumbing broke down, and garbage was thrown in the streets. GHETTOS Some residents had some money or valuables they could trade for food smuggled into the ghetto; others were forced to beg or steal to survive. Children also made toys, using whatever bits of cloth and wood they could find. Many ghettos forced residents to work in factories, making shoes, parts, and
other things for the German army. TESTIMONIES Ellis Lewin: How did the speed at which the Nazis established the ghettos make a difference? 2. Joseph Morton: Write down some keys words about his experience in the Lodz ghetto TESTIMONIES 1. Ellis Lewin: How did the speed 2. Joseph Morton: Write at which the Nazis established down some keys words
the ghettos make a difference? about his experience in the Lodz ghetto. The Nazis established the ghettos and forced the Jews into Wired walls them very quickly. Starvation was This was done on purpose. tremendous Instant change. People dying of hunger The Jews were unable to think or Always living in fear act. TESTIMONIES PART II 3. Leo Berkenwald:
How did his life change once the ghetto was created? 4. George Shainfarber: What role did food play in his experience in the ghettos? TESTIMONIES PART II 3. Leo Berkenwald: How did his life change once the ghetto was created? He went from living in a large, wealthy area of the city (plenty of room)
to living with twelve people in a two room apartment (for over 2 years). 4. George Shainfarber: What role did food play in his experience in the ghettos? Families were so hungry they fought over food. They barely had enough to survive. All he thought about was bread. REFLECTION
1. What was the purpose of the Nazis creating ghettos? 2. Name some problems that Jews faced every day in the ghettos. REFLECTION 1. What was the purpose of the Nazis creating ghettos? To control, isolate, and weaken the Jewish population. Ultimately, a place to keep them before they were sent to the concentration camps. 2. Name some problems that Jews faced every day in the ghettos. Starvation, family fighting, losing motivation/spirit Diseases, sicknesses Risk of getting taken away
DO NOW Copy the HW: Ghetto worksheet due tomorrow Go get one on the back table EXPERIENCES IN THE GHETTO There were many artifacts left behind by those who lived in the ghettos. This objects can help us better understand what life was like for these people.
The Butterfly Read with your group and respond: 1. What types of emotions do you get from this poem? 2.What has Pavel found to love in the ghetto? 3. Only I never saw another butterfly. 4. Mood change 5. Butterfly represents? GHETTO ARTIFACTS Each group will receive a different artifact from ghetto life.
1. Describe Examine the artifact and prepare a short presentation to the class by responding to these questions: 3. What do artifacts tell us that facts and figures do not? 2. What can it tell us about ghetto life? 4. How is studying artifacts different from
reading articles, chapters, encyclopedia? EXPERIENCES IN THE LODZ GHETTO In early 1940, in the city of Lodz, Poland, non-Jews were moved by German forces from the slum area and forced to make way for hundreds of Jews. These Jews and others from elsewhere in Poland were soon concentrated into this district, known as the ghetto. Among these forced to
relocate were the Sierakowiak family, with two children- Dawid and Natalia. Dawid began his diary while at a Jewish youth camp in Poland right before the German invasion of Poland in 1939. He continued his dairy entries until shortly before he died of hunger and exhaustion in 1943, two th DAWID SIERAKOWIAK Dawid was an inspiring young man.
He was intelligent, funny, politically aware, and an outstanding student at the top of his class. He had studied Latin, Hebrew, English, German, and French. Dawids notebooks were found after the war by a man returning to his apartment, where Dawid had lived in the ghetto. In the end, only five of at least seven notebooks survived. His diary is on display at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. His diary has been published in six
languages and is considered one of the richest accounts of daily Jewish life written during the Holocaust. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY Each group will get a clip from Dawids diary. As a group, create one piece of a storyboard. Your job is to read through his diary entry with your group. Draw a picture showing what is happening.
Afterwards, discuss what is happening to Dawid in this entry. Use only black colored pencils. Write the date and one caption. Then, respond to the questions on your reflection sheet. DATE AT THE TOP
Picture Caption: one sentence summarizing what is happening WHAT IS HAPPENING TO DAWID? Sharing of each dairy entry. Reflection:
What have you learned about life in the ghettos based on Dawids diary? How do primary sources, such as diaries, help us understand the past? Are these sources more reliable than textbooks? Why or why not? REFLECTION What have you learned about life in the ghettos based on Dawids diary?
Starvation, disease, and fear were all problems in the ghetto. How do primary sources, such as diaries, help us understand the past? They help us understand what life was like, with real descriptions, emotions, and concerns. Are these sources more reliable than textbooks? Why or why not? They can be because someone actually experienced it. Textbook writers do not experience what they write about.
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