Global Climate Change Chapter 13-3 The Greenhouse Effect
Global Climate Change Chapter 13-3 The Greenhouse Effect Some solar radiation is reflected by the Earth and the atmosphere
Solar radiation passes through the clear atmosphere Some of the infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere, and some is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by
greenhouse gas molecules. The effect of this is to warm the Earths surface and the lower atmosphere. Infrared radiation is emitted from the Earths Surface Most radiation is absorbed by the
Earths surface and warms it We know about the effects of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) 1.Carbon dioxide* 2.Methane* - CH4 3.Nitrous oxide* - N2O 4.CFCs chlorofluorocarbons** 5.Water vapor *These are increasing due to human activities, primarily burning of fossil fuels ** Being phased out, but persist in the atmosphere for
decades Primary Pollutants CO SO2 CO2 NO NO2 Most hydrocarbons
Most NO3 and SO42 salts Sources Natural Mobile Stationary Examples of Greenhouse Gases Affected by Human Activities
The main thing that contributes to greenhouse gas emissions is the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution How does the pre-industrial level of CO2 compare to 1999? CO2 CH4 N 2O Pre-industrial concentration 288 ppmv
848 ppbv 285 ppbv Concentration in 1999 366 ppmv 1800 ppbv 312 ppbv 100 year Global Warming Potential 1 21 310 Atmospheric lifetime (years) 50-200a 12b
120 CO2 Concentrations Over the Past 1000 Years CO2 Concentration (ppmv) CO2 Concentration (ppmv) 380 360 340 320
380 360 340 320 300 280 1850 1900 1950
2000 300 280 260 800 1000 1200
1400 Year Source: Based on IPCC (1994) 1600 1800 2000 Data on ice core samples taken in Antarctica give us a
picture of climate that goes back thousands of years Map of the continent of Antarctica Atmospheric gases and particles are trapped in the ice and can be analyzed to determine the composition of the atmosphere at different points in time. The deeper the core, the longer ago the ice was laid down. This one-meter long section of ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet project shows a dark ash layer. (Photo credit: Heidi Roop) Atmospheric carbon dioxide does vary over time What relationship do you see between temperature and CO2 levels?
Does one go up first? What makes the temps go up in the first place? Milankovitch cycles periodic changes in earths orbit begin the warming periods (end of ice ages) With warmer temps, more CO2 goes into the atmosphere from the oceans, which raises temps even more This is called a positive feedback system Look at this graph again. What is the highest level of CO2 in ppm over the last 400,000
years (except for the present)? Current levels of atmospheric CO2 : higher than they have been in recorded history http://co2now.org/ This data is from Feb. 2012 Latest data from Feb. 2013 Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels 1960-2000
This graph is called the Keeling Curve famous graph you should know! This is data collected at a station in the Pacific from 1960-2000 Keeling was one of the first scientists to document the consistent rise in CO 2 levels Notice the yearly cycle going up and down can you explain this? But overall, the trend is clearly upward Time-lapse history of human global CO2 emissions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqV-kx2ClXU&feature=related So if CO2 levels are correlated with temperature, then we
expect global temps to rise since the levels of CO2 have risen. And that is what we see.. Global Warming Data from NOAA This graph shows annual mean global temperature anomalies over the period 1880-2001. The zero line represents the long term mean temperature from 1880-2001, and
the red and blue bars are showing annual departures from that mean. As is evident in the graph, 2001 was second only to 1998 in terms of global temperature, and the trend has been toward increasing temperatures at least since the beginning of the 20th century. Land temperatures have greater anomalies than the ocean, which is to be expected since land heats up and cools down faster than water.
Graphic showing global temperatures warming since 1880 http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/2011-temps.html 2010 According to NOAA scientists, 2010 tied with 2005 as the warmest year of the global surface temperature record, beginning in 1880. This was the 34th consecutive year with global temperatures above the 20th century average. 2011 NASA reports 2011 was the ninth warmest year on record What about 2012? See next slide.
10 warmest years on record (C anomaly from 19012000 mean) Year 2010 2005 1998 2003 2002 2006 2009 2007 2004
0.8968 2012 is in the top 10 warmest years, too. Ocean 0.5027 0.5007 0.5160 0.5207 0.4902 0.4792 0.4953
0.3900 0.4885 0.4509 What evidence do we have that human activities are the cause of global warming? Radioisotopes of carbon in the atmosphere have revealed that more and more of the carbon is the type found in fossil fuels, and a lower percent is the type of carbon that has normally occurred in the atmosphere.
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Established to be an objective source of information on climate change for policy makers worldwide made conclusions and reports based on many scientific studies 2001 IPCC released third report states baldly that global warming, unprecedented since the end of the last ice age, is very likely; debate among scientists is effectively ended 2007 IPCC concluded with statistical certainty (90%) that human activity is contributing to global warming See their report: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf
Nobel Peace Prize Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 2007 to Al Gore, former Vice President of U.S., and the IPCC for work on the issue of climate change What does global warming have to do with world peace? Scientific consensus There is scientific consensus that global climate change in happening and that human activity is the cause. There is not really any more debate in the scientific community. There
are still a few people who are considered climate skeptics, but not very many. Some of these contrarians are the same people who were skeptical of and argued against the dangers of tobacco, the threat to the ozone layer, and the cause of acid rain all of which have been scientifically proven to be true. See the book Merchants of Doubt and the website Union of Concerned Scientists for more information. Consequences of global warming 1. Rising sea levels due to (1) melting of glaciers and
polar ice (documented already) (2) thermal expansion of ocean at warmer temps How will this affect polar regions? Islands? Coastal cities? Documented sea level rise from 1880-2000 Effects of a 1m rise in sea level Areas in red will be flooded if sea levels rise 1m
2. Dwindling Arctic and Antarctic sea ice Another example of positive feedback as the ice melts, there is less white and more dark surface to absorb radiation from the sun. This is called decreased albedo, or reflectivity. Temperatures go up even more. What does this tell you?
Since 1995 Reports of Antarctic ice shelves breaking up (predictions coming to reality) Consequences of global warming 3. Melting permafrost Permafrost is a carbon sink and when it melts, releases more carbon into the atmosphere, making global warming even worse another example of positive feedback
Studies have already documented that this is occurring. 4. Human health problems More problems with mosquitoes, diseases they transmit Ground-level ozone increases, leading to breathing problems HEALTH EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE
Temperature Rise 1 (Sea level Rise 2) Urban Heat Island Effect Heat Stress Cardiorespiratory failure Air Pollution Respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD & Asthma
Vector-borne Diseases Water-borne Diseases Hydrologic Extremes 1 2 2C by yr. 2100 49 cm IPCC estimates
Water resources & food supply Environmental Refugees Source: Jonathan Patz, 1998 Malaria Dengue Encephalitis Hantavirus Rift Valley Fever
Cholera Cyclospora Cryptosporidiosis Campylobacter Leptospirosis Malnutrition Diarrhea Toxic Red Tides Forced Migration Overcrowding Infectious diseases Human Conflicts
Consequences of global warming 5. Changes in weather patterns, such as more severe storms, changes in precipitation The frequency of downpours and heat waves, as well as the power of hurricanes, has increased so dramatically that "100-year storms" are striking some areas once every 15 years Hurricanes increase in strength over
warm water, could become more intense with global warming Consequences of global warming 6. Agriculture Decrease in crop yield due to drought, floods Some areas will have higher yields due to longer growing season Increased need for irrigation Consequences of global warming 7. Effects on plants and animals
Organisms in ecosystems are adapted for certain climate and if that changes, plants and animals there may not survive (adaptation in plants and animals takes time and global warming is changing things quickly), Ex: polar bear threatened by loss of sea ice that is necessary for successful hunting, Ex: golden toad of Costa Ricas cloud forest now extinct due to climate change there Coral bleaching occurs at warming temps only takes a sustained increase of about 1C for corals to bleach
Healthy coral reef with high biodiversity Bleached coral reef with low biodiversity Current and Projected Ranges of Sugar Maple Prediction based on increased temperature Present Range Source: Redrawn from Davis and Zabinski, 1992 Prediction based on increased
temperature and moisture reduction Overlap Predicted Range Consequences of global warming Consequences of global warming UAB researchers have documented that king crabs, once absent from the Antarctic, are invading because the ocean temperatures are warmer. This is bad news for the species that live there which are not adapted
to survive predation by shell-crushing crabs. Consequences of global warming 8. Ocean acidification normal ocean pH is close to 8 but it is dropping due to addition of CO 2 which forms an acid in the water Shelled organisms cant handle the lower pH and are being affected Sea urchin larvae dont develop normally UAB research
Kyoto Protocol, 1997 International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions About 120 countries agreed, U.S. has not U.S. objections: negative economic impacts, developing countries not held to same protocol as developed countries (not seen as fair) Expires in 2012
Copenhagen Accord, 2009 U.N. sponsors a yearly meeting of many of the worlds countries to discuss global climate change Recent outcome: Copenhagen Accord non-binding agreement to combat climate change Some of the main points:
Recognizes the scientific view that an increase of 2C should be the limit in order to combat climate change Countries set goals to reduce in GHG emissions Reduction in deforestation is critical Endorsed continuation of Kyoto Protocol Funding/incentives should be provided to developing countries Copenhagen Accord, 2009 Criticism Not a legal agreement
Was drafted by only 5 countries Does not say where funding will come from Sets no real targets for emissions reductions Countries only took note of the accord, did not adopt it Summary of global warming/cooling components: What can we do to reduce CO2 emissions? Increase energy efficiency use less fossil fuels Use cleaner fossil fuels, i.e., natural gas Government intervention i.e., laws, tax incentives,
international agreements Carbon sequestration Also called Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Cap and trade, or carbon credits Develop and use alternative fuels that produce little or no CO2 More on this in the unit on energy Summary video to end with.
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