Communication Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter www.sti-innsbruck.at

Communication Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter  www.sti-innsbruck.at

Communication Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter www.sti-innsbruck.at Copyright 2012 STI INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication

Communication (from the Latin commnictin- = share) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.* Communication may mean**: The act of transmitting A giving or exchanging of information, signals, or messages as by talk, gestures, or writing The information, signals, or message Close, sympathetic relationship A means of communicating; specif., a system for sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc. A system as of routes for moving troops and material A passage or way for getting from one place to another. The art of expressing ideas, esp. in speech and writing. The science of transmitting information, esp. in symbols. * http://dictionary.reference.com/ ** http://answers.yourdictionary.com/language/what-is-communication.html www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication

Communication is a social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. Types of communication: Spoken or Verbal communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television. Non-verbal communication: body language, gestures, voice tone. Written communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, information written over the Internet. Visualization communication: such as graphs, charts, maps, or logos. Image Source: http://www.rgbstock.com www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Directional Streams Vertical communication: Descendant: Communication that begins in the top management for an enterprise

and flows in the way of the hierarchy base of the organization. Ascendant vertical communication (opposing type). Lateral or horizontal communication: Consists of intergroup communication Usually not dependent on standards and rules established by the formal organization * http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.htm Image Source: http://www.rgbstock.com www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Need for effective communication Issue instructions and enable the business to operate (see vertical communication) Enable people at the same level to communicate with each other (see horizontal communication) Communicate with stakeholders and employees. Provide essential information. Keep stakeholders informed.

www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Models of communication: Conceptual models used to explain the human communication process The first major model for communication was created by Shannon and Weaver (1949) to represent the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Initial model was composed of three primary parts: Sender - the part of the telephone a person spoke into; Channel the telephone itself; Receiver part of the phone where one could hear the other person. The noise component appeared as the authors recognized the presence of static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation. www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Communication process elements*:

Transmitter or communications message source: initiates the communication process and sends the message Message transmission channel: enables the transmission of the message. Connects the transmitter and the receiver. Message receptor: entity that receives and decodes the message. Noises: obstructions in the communication process. Noise is internal (occurs during the encoding or decoding phases) or external (occurs on the transmission channel) Feedback: the answer the receptor gives as a result of the received message. Can be transmitted by the same channel or a different one. * http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.htm Image: http://www.productphotographers.net/wp-content/uploads/images/process.jpg www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Information Message Source Signal

Transmitter Received Signal Message Receiver Noise Source Schematic diagram of a general communication system as proposed by Shannon and Weaver (1949). www.sti-innsbruck.at Destination 1. Communication However:

The model presented is a minimalist abstraction of the reality it attempts to reproduce. Most communication systems are more complex. Most information sources (and destinations) act as both sources and destinations. Transmitters, receivers, channels, signals, and messages are layered both serially and in parallel: There are multiple signals transmitted and received , even when they are converged into a common signal stream and a common channel. www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Moreover, The Shannon model is not a model of communication It is a model of the flow of information through a medium. It is incomplete and biased It is applicable to the system it maps (telephone or telegraph), rather than most other media. It suggests a push model in which sources of information can inflict it on destinations.

www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication In the real world of media: Destinations are self-selecting consumers of information who have the ability to: select the messages they are most interested in turn off messages that dont interest them focus on one message in preference to other in message rich environments they can choose to simply not pay attention Messages are frequently stored for elongated periods of time and/or modified in some ways before they are accessed by the destination. Communication is almost never unidirectional and it is often indirect.

www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Communication is bidirectional Agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication. Destinations provide feedback in the form of a message or a set of messages. The source of feedback is an information source. The consumer of feedback is a destination. Individuals are simultaneously engaging in sending and receiving of messages (Barnlund, 2008). www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication We communicate to cooperate regardless of the channel employed. Communication is Multi-channel Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself), i.e. reflexive

Embedded in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated). www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Computer mediated communication is compared to other forms of communication media based on the following aspects: Synchronicity Persistence or recordability Anonymity Transience Multimodal language Relative lack of governing codes of conduct (McQuail, 2005)

A strong dependence on the environment can be observed. www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Our approach: We disseminate information Deal with the aggregation of feedback and impact by: simply going through the dissemination chain in the opposite direction integrating them under the appropriate knowledge item We not only TALK BUT also www.sti-innsbruck.at LISTEN

to response 1. Communication Online Communication It is not bound by physical, temporal and social limitations. Anonymity and privacy depends on the context of the channel used. It enables large number of audience to transmit and receive information. Image Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication Communication must support:

Design of an information item; Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels; Observation of communication acts Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information published A holistic methodology for supporting communication must support the above subtasks that form a circle or spiral These activities form a circle that we call the life cycle model of communication Image Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at 1. Communication A Lifecycle of Communication Measure Analyze Aggregate

Observe Design Disseminate Efficient and effective communication not only creates and disseminates information, but also deals with measurement, analysis and aggregation of feedback and impact, collecting responses in the various channels and integrating them under an appropriate knowledge item. www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace

6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 2. Dissemination Dissemination (from the Latin dissmintus = sowing seeds, scatter wildly in every direction) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver.

The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels) Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as delivering and receiving of a message, the engagement of an individual in a process and the transfer of a process or product. Image taken from: http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/rsz_1rsz_dissemination2.jpg www.sti-innsbruck.at 21 2. Dissemination In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel, or

channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel. (Wikipedia Channel (communications)) A channel is a means of exchanging information in the on-line space; a place where one can find or leave information, whether it is unanimously referred by a URI or addressed through a service. Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.com www.sti-innsbruck.at 22 2. Dissemination Classification of channels by the type of service they provide: 2.1. Static Broadcasting 2.2. Dynamic Broadcasting 2.3. Sharing

2.4. Collaboration 2.5. Social Networks 2.6. Internet Forums and Discussion Boards 2.7. Online Discussion Groups 2.8. Semantic-based Communication Image taken from: http://www.softicons.com/free-icons/application-icons/or-applications-icons-by-iconleak/file-cabinet-icon www.sti-innsbruck.at 2.1. Static Broadcasting Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals Online static dissemination: websites and homepages.

www.sti-innsbruck.at 24 2.2. Dynamic Communication Small piece of content that is dependent on constraints such as time, location. Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second the level of interactivity) News Feeds

Newsletters Email / Email lists Microblogs Blogs Social networks Chat and instant messaging applications www.sti-innsbruck.at 25 2.3. Dissemination through Sharing Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) Examples:

Flickr as a means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; Slideshare channel for storing and exchanging presentations; YouTube and VideoLectures sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websites www.sti-innsbruck.at 26 2.4. Dissemination through Collaboration Collaboration websites (Wikis): Websites where members can add, modify, or delete its content via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor.

Are created collaboratively by multiple users Primarily a means for project internal collaboration, but can transform into a dissemination channel if users outside the project have read access; Write access cannot be provided due to spamming and lack of peer review readers cannot reply to the articles posted. www.sti-innsbruck.at 27 2.5. Social Networks Provide a community aspect, i.e. forms a community that shares information in a

multi-directional way Common features (regardless of platform): construct a public/semi-public profile; articulate list of other users that they share a connection with; view the list of connections within the system Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile Social networks typically offer more than one channel of dissemination (thus they will

be considered platforms with many available dissemination channels): Facebook: Pages, Groups, Share options LinkedIn and Xing are focused on professional use and fit the purpose of organizations www.sti-innsbruck.at 28 2.6. Internet Forums and Discussion Boards Web applications managing user-generated content Early forums can be described as a web version of an email list or newsgroup

Internet forums are prevalent in several countries: Japan, China Are governed by a set of rules Users have a specific designated role, e.g. moderator, administrator The unit of communication is the post Common features

Tripcodes and capcodes - a secret password is added to the user's name following a separator character Private message Attachment BBCode and HTML Emoticon or smiley to convey emotion

Poll RSS and ATOM feeds Other forum features www.sti-innsbruck.at 29 2.7. Online Discussion Groups Many-to-many

Threaded conversations Usually created on a particular topic Have different access levels Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, knowledge and information sharing and open discussions Examples: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups.

Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet Forums www.sti-innsbruck.at 30 2.8. Semantic Based Dissemination Scope: Add machine-processable semantics to the information -> Search and aggregation engines can provide much better service in finding and retrieving information Applications: Enrich websites by adding machine readable semantics to HTML/XML files:

RDFa Microformats Microdata Inclusion of semantic annotation in XHTML docs Enrich content of on-line presentations by adding links and tags to the presented information Reuse of predefines LOD vocabularies to describe our data to enable semantic based retrieval of information www.sti-innsbruck.at 31 Communication Overview

1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 3. Social Media Monitoring SMM tools facilitate the listening of what people say about various topics in the social media sphere (blogs, twitter, facebook, etc.) Listening: is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. www.sti-innsbruck.at

3. Social Media Monitoring What are the Social Media Monitoring Tools? (contd) Harness the wealth of information available online in the form of usergenerated content These tools offer means for listening to the social media users, analyzing and measuring their activity in relation to a brand or enterprise Offer access to real customers opinions, complaints and questions, at real time, in a highly scalable way www.sti-innsbruck.at 3. Social Media Monitoring Channels to analyze FORUMS/NEWSGROUPS MICROBLOGS

VIDEO SHARING SOCIAL NETWORKS WIKIS The Conversation SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS AGGREGATORS PHOTO SHARING BLOGS www.sti-innsbruck.at MAINSTREAM MEDIA 3. Social Media Monitoring A Social Media Monitoring tool should support the following core

features: Listening grid Data analysis Sentiment analysis Historical data Dashboard

www.sti-innsbruck.at 3. Social Media Monitoring Commercial Tools Alterian SM2 Brandwatch Converseon Cymfony Maestro

evolve24 Mirror Media Metrics socialMeme Meltwater Buzz NM Incite My BuzzMetrics Radian6 Sysomos Visible Technologies Intelligence www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary

www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring To make Online Communication efficient and effective, a tool needs to Integrate publication and monitoring (and support active and reactive communication) Trace the communication in an easy to use manner Address the issue of multiple channels and multiple agents www.sti-innsbruck.at

Communication Active and reactive communication Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Support Active and Re-active Communication Trace the Communication Address the

Issue of Multiple Channels Address the Issue of Multiple Agents + www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Active communication If an agent starts a communication the agent takes the role of the message sender we talk about active communication. Communication Active and reactive communication

www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Media Monitoring nse spo Re I Fe mpa ed c t ba ck Multi-Channel Publishing 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication The first step in the Communication Lifecycle will be to design an

information item that will be disseminated over suitable channels in the next step. E.g. the hotelier is engaging with potential costumers by publishing a new offer on his Web site. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminate www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Example of Active

Communication performed by a hotelier on Facebook www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Customer response to the hotels message www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Re-active communication Re-active communication describes communication situations initiated by an external agent the agent takes the role of the receiver and will re-act on the

received message. Communication Active and reactive communication www.sti-innsbruck.at Social Media Monitoring nse spo Re I Fe mpa ed c t ba ck Multi-Channel Publishing

4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication The Communication Lifecycle starts with the observation of all channels. In the next step impact, feedback and responses are measured, aggregated, and analyzed. E.g. the hotelier sees a post on his Facebook page and responds to it. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminate www.sti-innsbruck.at 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication

Transmitter: guest at hotel External Re-active communication Reactor: hotelier Source: http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g53449-d96753-r130438938-Hampton_Inn_Pittsburgh_Greentree-Pittsburgh_Pennsylvania.html www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch

7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 5. Trace www.sti-innsbruck.at Active and reactive communication Tracing the communication Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media Monitoring nse spo Re Communication has a history

The communication history IS the trace Communication must be remembered otherwise it is meaningless Communication I Fe mpa ed c t ba ck Tracing a conversation through all channels involved is crucial for making communication effective and efficient, and is therefore required for 5. Trace

Trace can be viewed as a set of 5 elements: Speaker transmitter, source of the message that initiates the communication process; Listener receiver, the destination of the message, witch which a collaboration relation has been established; Message the information disseminated; Channel the type of channel used to transmit the information (e.g. Facebook, email, Twitter, etc.) Time and Date when was the message received; www.sti-innsbruck.at 5. Trace Thus, trace can be viewed as www.sti-innsbruck.at WHO Speaker and

Listener WHAT Message HOW Channel WHEN Time and Date 5. Trace No reaction Reaction Reaction

Reaction Reaction No reaction www.sti-innsbruck.at Reaction Hotel Website Reaction Reaction No reaction

No reaction No reaction 5. Trace Example A hotel disseminates offers using the hotel website. Five potential clients view the offers. 2 clients (marked as green) do not react. The red client sends an email The hotel replies with a phone call. The client is satisfied. The communication stagnates. The purple client posts on Facebook a message The hotel replies

The communication stagnates. For the yellow client Responds with a tweet, the hotelier replies with a private tweet; The client posts on Tumblr, the hotelier responds; A chat discussion is initiated via Skype The customer is satisfied. Conversation stagnates. Note the communication with either client can be initiated again at any time. www.sti-innsbruck.at 5. Trace

Communication with a client can continue until the client decides to stop it (such as, unsubscribes) The message may or may not be intended for the hotelier (e.g. a client can express his opinions on the hotel on TripAdvisor, and the hotel can reply there) Thus a trace is a set T = {S, L, M, T, C} S the collection of speakers, L the collection of listeners, M the message collection, T the time and date, C the possible channels, Speaker Listener

www.sti-innsbruck.at Message Set Time Set Chanel Set 5. Trace For yellow it will be: 1: {Hotel, Client, Message1, Time1, Hotel Website} 2: {Client, Hotel, Message2, Time2, Twitter} 3: {Hotel, Client, Message3, Time3, Twitter} N: {Client, Hotel, MessageN, TimeN, Skype} Thus:

S = {Hotel}; L = {Client}; M = {Message1, Message2, Message3, , MessageN}; T = {Time1, Time2, Time3, , TimeN}; C = {Hotel Website, Twitter, Tumblr, , Skype}; www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace

6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 6. Multi-Channel Switch (Online) Communication is scattered over multiple, often very different channels. Communication www.sti-innsbruck.at Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media Monitoring

nse spo Re Agents are challenged to disseminate information over all appropriate channels. Activities of all channels the agent is active in must be monitored. Impact, Feedback and Responses need to be collected from all channels. I Fe mpa ed c t ba ck

Active and reactive communication Tracing the communication Multi-channel switch 6. Multi-Channel Switch www.sti-innsbruck.at 6. Multi-Channel Switch WHY Transmitting a message over a channel does not guarantee that the reply will be received on the same channel. For example, a hotelier might post an offer on Facebook, and receive a response from Twitter. Transmitters must be able to switch cannels properly and identify the channel where the response will appear. Due to the abundance of channels, most of the times there are more than

one agents transmitting and receiving messages a workflow must be set up to ensure that all agents are aware of what is discussed and who is speaking. To do so, the trace mentioned in the previous section must be used. www.sti-innsbruck.at 6. Multi-Channel Switch Abundance of Available Channels www.sti-innsbruck.at 6. Multi-Channel Switch www.sti-innsbruck.at 6. Multi-channel Switch Hotel

www.sti-innsbruck.at Client Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 7. Multi-Agent Communication requires at least 2 agents: a speaker and

a listener However, communication does not occur in a void thus the initial model may never occur in real life as there may always be more than one listener or more than one agent. More agents may be required when the communication receives responses from multiple listeners. www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Active and reactive communication Tracing the communication Multi-channel switch Multi-agent

Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media Monitoring 7. Multi-Agent Moreover, due to the lack of time constraints on online conversations (they may begin at any time, and be picked up again at irregular intervals), it may be impossible for a single agent to be on call for every response. Thus, a client may begin a conversation with one agent, and receive a response for a different one. The trace explained in the 3rd section, plays an important role of preparing agents and ensuring that the proper response is given. www.sti-innsbruck.at

7. Multi-Agent 1-to-1 The model represented by the two agents can be coded as 1-to-1, one listener and one speaker The two agents may communicate over a wide variety of channels Examples of 1-to-1 communication include phone conversations, char and instant messaging, email (when the email is sent specifically to one receiver and the sender knows it will be read only by that person), etc. The transmitter will always be active, while the respondent is reactive. Transmit message A www.sti-innsbruck.at Transmit response B 7. Multi-Agent 1-to-n

When broadcasting information, usually there is one agent who disseminates information to n possible respondents. This model can be mapped out as 1-to-n: 1 speaker to n listeners. Examples of such communication include news releases (a press conference for instance, involves 1 speaker and many listeners), a blog post, a Facebook post, Tweet, etc. Speaker e ssag e m smit n a r o ns e T p s

e mi t r s n a Tr Tran smit mess age www.sti-innsbruck.at Listener1 ListenerN 7. Multi-Agent n-to-1

There are situations where there are more speakers and only one listener. The n-to-1 model is not often encountered in real life. The speakers would have to transmit messages in a turn-based manner. One example is ascendant communication employees reporting to employer. In some situations, the communication is not turn-based such as the case of a protest (more speakers trying to address a single listener) SpeakerN ge ssa e it m m

s n Tra Tra ns Tra mit re nsm sp it m onse ess age Speaker1 Listener www.sti-innsbruck.at 7. Multi-Agent m-to-n

In real life, there usually are more speakers and more listeners. An enterprise will use n agents to disseminate information and listen to customer reactions and responses. Communication is not isolated, thus there will often be more than one listener. www.sti-innsbruck.at 7. Multi-Agent m-to-n Hotel Agent1 Posts offer on Facebook Clients Client Responds on Agent2 Responds on email Clients wife reads the email

www.sti-innsbruck.at Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summary www.sti-innsbruck.at 8. Summary Communication (from the Latin commnictin- = share) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.

www.sti-innsbruck.at 8. Summary Shannon and Weaver (1949) communication model consists of: sender, channel, receiver, information source, and destination. The model is incomplete: communication is bidirectional, agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication. Communication is Multi-channel Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself) Reflexive Embedded in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated).

Communication must support: Design of an information item; Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels; Observation of communication acts Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information published www.sti-innsbruck.at 8. Summary The communication history IS the trace and Communication must be remembered The trace is composed by passing through the communication channel for a n number of times (where , and is a finite number) Communication requires at least 2 agents: a speaker and a listener However, communication does not occur in a void thus the initial

model may never occur in real life as there may always be more than one listener or more than one agent. The models are: 1-to-1, 1-to-n, n-to-1, and m-to-n. Communication is the integral part of Dissemination. The results of communication can be monitored using social media monitoring tools. www.sti-innsbruck.at www.sti-innsbruck.at References Barnlund, D. C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In. C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory (2nd ed., pp47-57). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction. Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press S. Mulpuru, H. H. Harteveldt, and D. Roberge: Five Retail eCommerce Trends To Watch In 2011, Forrester Research Report, January 31, 2011 McQuail, Denis. (2005). Mcquail's Mass Communication Theory. 5th ed.

London: SAGE Publications. Warschauer, M. (2001). Online communication. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 207-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. www.sti-innsbruck.at

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Visualizing the Protein Sequence Universe ECMLS 2012 18 June 2012

    Visualizing the Protein Sequence Universe ECMLS 2012 18 June 2012

    Proximity measure: sequence alignment % scores Scores calculated using Needleman-Wunsch Scores "sqrt 4D" transformed and fed into MDS Analytic form for transformation to 4D ijn decreases dimension n > 1; increases n < 1 "sqrt 4D" reduced dimension of distance...
  • Lord of the Flies: The Power of the Mob Mentality

    Lord of the Flies: The Power of the Mob Mentality

    Film Clip. Watch "YouTube" Video called "Lord of the Flies Music Video by Clint Marshall" This video shows Simon's death scene (Chapter 9 . LOF) Notice the savageness and chaotic scenes depicted from the novel and how the scenes from...
  • Production and Operations Management Overview

    Production and Operations Management Overview

    Management Overview Operations Function Operations Objectives Operations Decisions World Class Principles Competitiveness Operations Function Operations Goals Productivity Operations Decisions System Design capacity location arrangement of departments product and service planning acquisition and placement of equipment More Operations Decisions System operation...
  • Lesson 12 Matthew 7:13-23 Matthew 7:15-20 Beware of

    Lesson 12 Matthew 7:13-23 Matthew 7:15-20 Beware of

    Even so, every good tree bears good fruit, but a bad tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut...
  • 29 Joel - crosstraining.us

    29 Joel - crosstraining.us

    Slide . Title . The Greek Septuagint (LXX) and Latin Vulgate (Vg.) versions follow the Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT), titling this book after Joel the prophet, the recipient of the message from God (1:1).
  • GRS Information Session Professor Garry Allison Curtin University

    GRS Information Session Professor Garry Allison Curtin University

    UniSA, UTS, RMiT, QUT, Curtin. What we will cover in this session. GRS Services and Support - what we do. Research Integrity, Ethics, Hazards and Safety. University Travel - policy, processes . Research Training opportunities - Workshops and Seminars for...
  • Module 4c Action replay 13.12.2015 SB p. 60

    Module 4c Action replay 13.12.2015 SB p. 60

    Sport. What's the difference between football fans and hooligans? Football fans. Hooligans. Do you support a football/ basketball/team? ... a result of their fans' hooliganism. 1.Who won the match? Chatford. 2. What were angry fans doing during . the match?
  • Neurophysics - part 1 - Adrian Negrean adrian.negrean@cncr.vu.nl

    Neurophysics - part 1 - Adrian Negrean [email protected]

    example: an Ohmic leak channel when describing Ohmic single channel leak currents, the reversal potential has to be also taken into account: single channel conductance single channel current membrane potential reversal potential for the ions involved for the great majority...