Engineering Ethics Motivation You will face ethical dilemmas
Engineering Ethics Motivation You will face ethical dilemmas in your career count on it! Your decisions will affect: your professional reputation. your employability. the welfare of others. Companies are placing more value on ethics (or at least saying they are just
ask Enron, Worldcom, and Adelphia!). 2 Ethical Theory in a Nutshell Ethics 1. Branch of philosophy that deals with the general nature of good and bad and the specific moral obligations of and choices to be made by the individual in her/his relationship to others. 2. Rules or standards governing conduct, especially those of a profession. What are the key points? 3
Ethics, Morals, and Values Morals - concerned with principles of right and wrong and the decisions that derive from these principles Principles - fundamental laws or rules, from which morals are derived, that govern behavior
Values - something that a person or group believes to be valuable or worthwhile 4 Ethical Systems Rule-Based Ethics Apply a set of rules to make all decisions - Based upon the principles: Universality: reasons for action that all people in society could accept. Transitivity: you would accept others applying the same decision to you. - What does this remind you of?
- What are problems with this? 5 Ethical Systems Conditional Rule-Based Ethics - Certain conditions under which an individual can break a rule - The moral good of the situation outweighs the rule Examples: What are the problems with this approach? 6
Ethical Systems Utilitarian Ethics - The decision that produces the highest good for all people involved. Problem? 7 Job Offers Question: Is it ethical to accept a job offer with a company, then change your mind and decline the offer if you subsequently receive a better offer from another company? YES or NO.
How do you avoid being put in this situation? Question: Is it ethical to go on a job interview with a company that you have no intention working for? YES or NO. 8 Other Thoughts - A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon the world Albert Camus, Nobel laureate, author and philosopher - Ethical people do the right thing when no one is watching
LTG John Rosa, 19th President of The Citadel Engineering Ethics - The study of moral issues and decisions confronting individuals and organizations involved in engineering - The study of related questions about moral conduct, character, ideals and relationships of peoples and organizations involved in technological development (Martin and Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering).
NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers - National Society of Professional Engineers - Designed to provide positive stimulus for ethical conduct as well as helpful guidance and advice concerning the primary and basic obligations of engineers. - Also establishes the ethical guideposts for the NSPE Board of Ethical Review Established in the 1950s to review factual situations
involving ethical dilemmas submitted by engineers, public officials, and members of the public. Anonymous dilemma situations are reviewed by the members of the Board and considered in light of the language of the NSPE Code of Ethics, Board of Ethical Review precedents, and the practical experiences of the seven professional engineers selected from each of NSPE's separate geographical regions who serve on the Board. The Board issues written opinions which contain a description of the facts, pertinent Code citations, relevant questions, detailed discussions, and conclusions. Some opinions also Engineers' Creed - Developed in response to a desire for a short
statement of philosophy of service, similar to the Hippocratic Oath for medical practitioners or similar oaths of the legal profession, that can be used in ceremonies or in recognition of individuals. - Approved in June 1954, the Creed is used widely in NSPE, state society, and local chapter officer installation ceremonies, licensure certificate presentations, and engineering school graduations. As a Professional Engineer, I dedicate my professional knowledge and skill to the advancement and betterment of human welfare.
I pledge: To give the utmost of performance; To participate in none but honest enterprise; To live and work according to the laws of man and the highest standards of professional conduct; To place service before profit, the honor and standing of the profession before personal advantage, and the public welfare above all other considerations. In humility and with need for Divine Guidance, I make this pledge. Adopted by National Society of Professional Engineers, June 1954 NSPE Code of Ethics for
Engineers http://www.nspe.org/Ethics/index.html Engineering Ethics Homepage http://www.niee.org/cases/index.htm National Institute for Engineering Ethics collection of cases dating from 1976 NCEES Rules of Professional Conduct - The National Council for Examiners of Engineering and Surveying - A set of model rules of professional conduct as guidance to state engineering licensing boards in developing such rules. - Each state licensing board is generally granted
the statutory authority to promulgate its own set of rules, which are binding upon every person holding an engineering license allowing them to offer or perform engineering services in the state. IEEE Code of Ethics - Electrical and Computer Engineering discipline has two professional societies/ organizations - Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers (IEEE) - Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) - IEEE Code of Ethics applies broadly to the
electrical, computing, and software fields - www.ieee.org/about/corporate/governance/p7-8.html 17 IEEE Code of Ethics We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: 1. to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; 2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; 3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data;
4. to reject bribery in all its forms; 5. to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences; 6. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; 7. to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; 8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; 9. to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; 10. to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. Approved by the IEEE Board of Directors, February 2006
Handling Ethical Dilemmas ethical yes III IV no I II
no yes legal 19 20 Whistleblower What is a whistleblower?
What are some well-known examples of whistleblowing ? 21 Whistleblower Guidelines When it is appropriate to become a whistleblower 1. The harm to the public must be considerable or serious. 2. Concerns must have been made to your superiors (up to the CEO) without satisfactory resolution. 3. You have documented evidence that would convince an impartial observer that your
company is wrong. 4. Release of the information outside of the company will prevent the harm. 22 Case Study Analysis Gather information known vs unknown, assumptions 2. Identify the stakeholders - people affected by the decision 3. Consider the relevant ethical values - IEEE code of ethics, legal issues 4. Determine the best course of action - identify alternative decisions/actions - interest of stakeholders vs ethics
1. 23 Project Application: Ethics in the Design Process Adequate research to understand prior art? Patents or copyrights infringement? Requirements specifications meet the needs of the stakeholders?
Design space as large as possible? Identify and apply relevant safety standards? Consider all possible ways a design can fail?
Consider ways the product can be misused? Conduct design reviews? Cost & project schedules fair & realistic? Design pass acceptance tests (verification)? 24
Summary Be prepared to encounter ethical dilemmas in your career. Important to understand basics of intellectual property who owns it? Employ good design process activities to
include ethical considerations in design.. Apply ethical decision-making paradigm and utilize resources available to you. 25
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