Agenda 1/3/11 Collect any more Lab 6 Abstracts You work on Biotech review sheet while I check review manual Ch. 11 Molecular Genetics Biotech lecture Review Ch. 20 with my Bio powerpoint Questions on Slides 43-77 from before break wrap up Ch. 20 Practical Applications of DNA Technology (start today and finish tomorrow) HomeworkFree response questions due tomorrow Study for Molecular Genetics/Biotech test Thurs. Ch. 22 & 23 Notes and self-quiz due next Monday
Agenda 1/4/11 Review animations http://www.dnai.org/a/index.html - go to Code, then for each of the 4 tabs at the bottom, go to putting the pieces together- great animations and practice modules Funny: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQEaX3MiDow - GTCA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5yPkxCLads&NR=1 - a tribute to PCR http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIZpb93NYlw&feature=related - 2 students Finish any lecture material from yesterday Correct free response questions Homework Study for Test tomorrow! Ch. 16-21 use your review manuals!!! Ch. 22 & 23 Notes and self-quiz due next Monday
Practical Applications of DNA Technology 1) Diagnosis of Disease PCR and labeled probes can track down the pathogens responsible for infectious diseases. For example, PCR can amplify and thus detect HIV DNA in blood and tissue samples. Even detects small traces of virus. Also possible to detect carriers of disease gene who have normal phenotype.
Hybridization analysis makes it possible to detect abnormal allelic forms of genes, even in cases in which the gene has not yet been cloned. The presence of an abnormal allele can be diagnosed with reasonable accuracy if a closely linked RFLP marker has been found. The closeness of the marker to the gene makes crossing over between them unlikely and the marker and gene will almost always stay together in
inheritance. Fig. 20.15 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2) Gene Therapy This alters an afflicted individuals genes. A normal allele is inserted into somatic cells of a tissue affected by a genetic disorder. For gene therapy of somatic cells to be permanent, the cells that receive the normal allele must be ones that multiply throughout the patients life.
Bone marrow cells, which include the stem cells that give rise to blood and immune system cells, are prime candidates for gene therapy. A normal allele could be inserted by a viral vector into some bone marrow cells removed from the patient. If the procedure succeeds, the returned modified cells will multiply throughout the patients life and
express the normal gene, providing missing proteins. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 20.16 Gene therapy problems Even when genes are successfully and safely transferred and expressed in their new host, their activity typically diminishes after a short period. The most promising trials are those in which a limited activity period is not only sufficient but
desirable Technically complex dont always express gene in correct amounts, etc. Raises ethical questions should we mess with evolution? Cure diseases before birth? From a biological perspective, the elimination of unwanted alleles from the gene pool could backfire. Genetic variation is a necessary ingredient for the survival of a species as environmental conditions change with time. Genes that are damaging under some
conditions could be advantageous under other conditions, for example the sickle-cell allele. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3) Production of Pharmaceuticals DNA technology has been used to create many useful pharmaceuticals, mostly proteins. By transferring the gene for a protein into a host that is easily grown in culture, one can produce large quantities of normally rare proteins.
Examples recombinant human insulin and HGH (human growth factor) New pharmaceutical products are responsible for novel ways of fighting diseases that do not respond to traditional drug treatments. One approach is to use genetically engineered proteins that either block or mimic surface receptors on cell membranes. For example, one experimental drug mimics a receptor protein that HIV bonds to when entering white blood cells, but HIV binds to the
drug instead and fails to enter the blood cells. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Virtually the only way to fight viral diseases is by vaccination. A vaccine is a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates the immune system. Traditional vaccines are of 3 types: 1)Component - particles of virulent viruses (usually antigens from capsid) 2) Live attenuated live virus weakened by
chemical or physical means 3) Killed virus All are similar enough to the active pathogen to trigger an immune response. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4) Forensic applications In violent crimes, blood, semen, or traces of other tissues may be left at the scene DNA testing can identify the guilty individual RFLP analysis by Southern blotting can detect similarities and differences in DNA samples and requires
only tiny amounts of blood or other tissue. Radioactive probes mark electrophoresis bands that contain certain RFLP markers. Even as few as five markers from an individual can be used to create a DNA fingerprint. The probability that two people (that are not identical twins) have the same DNA fingerprint is very small. DNA fingerprints can be used forensically to presence evidence to juries in murder trials. This autoradiograph of RFLP bands of samples from a murder victim, the defendant, and the defendants clothes is consistent with the conclusion that the blood on the
clothes is from the victim, not the defendant. Fig. 20.17 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The forensics use of DNA fingerprinting extends beyond violent crimes. For instance, DNA fingerprinting can be used to settle conclusively a question of paternity. These techniques can also be used to identify the remains of individuals killed in natural or man-made disasters.
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Variations in the lengths of satellite DNA are increasingly used as markers in DNA fingerprinting. The most useful satellites are microsatellites, which are roughly 10 to 100 base pairs long. They have repeating units of only a few base pairs and are highly variable from person to person. Individuals may vary in the numbers of repeats, simple tandem repeats (STRs), at a locus. Restriction fragments with STRs vary in size among individuals because of differences in STR lengths.
PCR is often used to amplify selectively particular STRs or other markers before electrophoresis, especially if the DNA is poor or in minute quantities. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The DNA fingerprint of an individual would be truly unique if it were feasible to perform restriction fragment analysis on the entire genome. In practice, forensic DNA tests focus on only about five tiny regions of the genome. The probability that two people will have identical DNA
fingerprints in these highly variable regions is typically between one in 100,000 and one in a billion. The exact figure depends on the number of markers and the frequency of those markers in the population. Despite problems that might arise from insufficient statistical data, human error, or flawed evidence, DNA fingerprinting is now accepted as compelling evidence. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5) Environmental Cleanup Scientists are engineering the metabolism of microorganisms to help cope with some environmental problems.
For example genetically engineered microbes that can extract heavy metals from their environments and incorporate the metals into recoverable compounds may become important both in mining materials and cleaning up highly toxic mining wastes. In addition to the normal microbes that participate in sewage treatment, new microbes that can degrade other harmful compounds are being engineered. Gulf oil spill 6) Agricultural Applications For many years scientists have been using DNA technology to improve agricultural productivity.
DNA technology is now routinely used to make vaccines and growth hormones for farm animals. Transgenic organisms with genes from another species have been developed to exploit the attributes of the new genes (for example, faster growth, larger muscles). Other transgenic organisms are pharmaceutical factories - a producer of large amounts of an otherwise rare substance for medical use. Fig. 20.18 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Agricultural scientists have engineered a number of crop plants with genes for desirable traits. These includes delayed ripening and resistance to spoilage and disease. Because a single transgenic plant cell can be grown in culture to generate an adult plant, plants are easier to engineer than most animals. The Ti plasmid, from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is often used to introduce new genes into plant cells. The Ti plasmid normally integrates a segment of its
DNA into its host plant and induces tumors. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Foreign genes can be inserted into the Ti plasmid (a version that does not cause disease) using recombinant DNA techniques. The recombinant plasmid can be put back into Agrobacterium, which then infects plant cells, or introduced directly into plant cells. Fig. 20.19
The Ti plasmid can only be used as a vector to transfer genes to dicots (plants with two seed leaves). Monocots, including corn and wheat, cannot be infected by Agrobacterium (or the Ti plasmid). Other techniques, including electroporation and DNA guns, are used to introduce DNA into these plants. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Genetic engineering is quickly replacing
traditional plant-breeding programs. In the past few years, roughly half of the soybeans and corn in America have been grown from genetically modified seeds. These plants may receive genes for resistance to weed-killing herbicides or to infectious microbes and pest insects. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Scientists are using gene transfer to improve the nutritional value of crop plants. For example, a transgenic rice plant has been
developed that produces yellow grains containing beta-carotene. Humans use beta-carotene to make vitamin A. Currently, 70% of children under the age of 5 in Southeast Asia are deficient in vitamin A, leading to vision impairment and increased disease rates. Fig. 20.20 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
An important potential use of DNA technology focuses on nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation occurs when certain bacteria in the soil or in plant roots convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compounds that plants can use. Plants use these to build nitrogen-containing compounds, such as amino acids. In areas with nitrogen-deficient soils, expensive fertilizers must be added for crops to grow. Nitrogen fertilizers also contribute to water pollution. DNA technology offers ways to increase
bacterial nitrogen fixation and eventually, perhaps, to engineer crop plants to fix nitrogen themselves. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA technology has lead to new alliances between the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. Plants can be engineered to produce human proteins for medical use and viral proteins for use as vaccines. Several such pharm products are in clinical trials, including vaccines for hepatitis B and an
antibody that blocks the bacteria that cause tooth decay. The advantage of pharm plants is that large amounts of these proteins might be made more economically by plants than by cultured cells. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA technology raises important safety and ethical questions The power of DNA technology has led to worries about potential dangers. For example, recombinant DNA technology may
create hazardous new pathogens. Today, most public concern centers on genetically modified (GM) organisms used in agriculture. GM organisms have acquired one or more genes (perhaps from another species) by artificial means. Genetically modified animals are still not part of our food supply, but GM crop plants are. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Advocates of a cautious approach fear that GM crops might somehow be hazardous to human health or cause ecological harm.
In particular, transgenic plants may pass their new genes to close relatives in nearby wild areas through pollen transfer. Transference of genes for resistance to herbicides, diseases, or insect pests may lead to the development of wild superweeds that would be difficult to control. To date there is little good data either for or against any special health or environmental risks posed by genetically modified crops. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Today, governments and regulatory agencies are grappling with how to facilitate the use of biotechnology in agriculture, industry, and medicine while ensuring that new products and procedures are safe. In the United States, all projects are evaluated for potential risks by various regulatory agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Agriculture. These agencies are under increasing pressures from some consumer groups. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Agenda 1/5/11 Molecular Genetics Test Homework Ch. 22 & 23 Notes and self-quiz due next Monday Study for finals!! Agenda 1/6/11
Test Corrections (20 min) finish on your own time if needed Preview Ch. 22-25 (flip through book) 5 min Start Darwin video What Darwin Never Knew find on YouTube and watch in Parts Homework Bring Review Manual Monday and a written out study plan detailing what you will cover on a daily or weekly basis in prep for the cumulative final exam Ch. 22 & 23 Notes and self-quiz due next Monday
Study for finals!! Part 2 12:45 min (where we got to last year) Agenda 1/9/11 Ill Check Ch. 22 & 23 Notes and self-quiz during movie, also study plan Random review questions Review what movie has covered so far from which chapters? Continue What Darwin Never Knew Homework Ch. 24 & 25 Notes and self-quizzes due next Tuesday
Study for finals!!! Keep to your plan!! Agenda 1/10/11 Review questions on Chemistry of Life- 10 min only Start with part 5 of What Darwin Never Knew Homework Ch. 24 & 25 Notes and self-quizzes due next Tuesday Study for finals!!! Keep to your plan!! Agenda 1/11/11
Review questions on Cell Biology - 10 min only Start with part 7 of What Darwin Never Knew 8:12 Discuss movie and what was relevant what have we covered from 22-25 Homework Bring questions for Ch. 22 & 23 Ch. 24 & 25 Notes and self-quizzes due next Tuesday Study for finals!!! Keep to your plan!! 1/12/11 Review Cell Signaling, Cell Cycle & Cell
Metabolism (Respiration and Photosynthesis) Ch. 22 & 23 Highlights Homework Bring questions for Ch. 24 & 25 Ch. 24 & 25 Notes and self-quizzes due next Tuesday Study for finals!!! Keep to your plan!! Match up the person with the theory
Carolus Linnaeus Aristotle Old Testament Lamarck
Cuvier Lyell Darwin
Uniformitarianism Use and Disuse Natural Selection Catastrophism
Taxonomy Scala naturae Binomial Nomenclature God designed perfect species Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Organize the following terms into a flowchart Adaptation, Environmental Change, Natural Selection, Species Changes, Variation exists
Can Individuals Evolve? List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation? Microevolution = Population = 5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg
Equilibrium? Is it realistic? What is genetic drift? Give 2 examples Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive Evolution Relative fitness? 3 ways that it can affect phenotype distribution name and draw Genetic variation preserved how?
Why not perfection? 1/13/11 Review C4/Cam with picture on p. 192-193 point is to minimize photorespiration Mendelian Genetics Review 24 & 25 Homework Ch. 24 & 25 Notes and self-quizzes due Tuesday Study for finals!!! Keep to your plan!! Speciation when does evolution result in a new species? Species defined =
Macroevolution = What are 2 main types of reproductive isolation? Prezygotic vs. Postzygotic Describe various methods of prezygotic: isolation: habitat, behavioral, temporal, mechanical, gametic Describe various methods of postzygotic: Reduced hybrid viability, Reduced hybrid fertility, Hybrid breakdown Allopatric vs. Sympatric speciation
has to do with geographic isolation Allopatric: Sympatric: Speed of Speciation Gradualism Punctuated Equilibrium & Adaptive radiation
Classification terms Phylogeny = Inferred from homologous structures and molecular data Systematics = Taxonomy = Binomial nomenclature DKPCOFGS look at table of 3 domains Taxon Phlyogenetic Tree Cladogram and clades
Molecular systematics DNA that codes for rRNA DNA that codes for mitochondrial DNA Molecular clocks 1/17/11 Check notes 24 & 25 Molecular Genetics review PCR & know a few genetic diseases caused by mutations Finish review Ch. 24 & 25- especially cladograms
Review Labs Homework STUDY FOR FINAL on Thursday/Friday!!!
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