02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 1 Identify, give

02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 1 Identify, give

02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 1 Identify, give evidence for, predict products of, and classify the following types of chemical reactions: 1. Synthesis (combination) 2. Decomposition 3. Single Replacement 4. Double Replacement 5. Neutralization (acid/base) 6. Combustion 02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani

Chem-100 2 Synthesis Decomposition Neutralization Single displacement Double displacement Combustion 02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 3 A chemical change: any change in which a new substance is formed.

Evidence of a Chemical Change: Release of energy as heat Release of energy as light Change in colour Formation of a gas Change in odour 02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 4 1. Neutralization: Acid(H) + Base(OH) salt + H(OH) 2.

Combustion: AB + oxygen CO2 + H2O 3. Synthesis: A + B AB 4. Decomposition: AB A + B 5. Single displacement: A + BC AC + B 6. Double displacement: AB + CD AD + CB 02/01/20

Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 5 Synthesis reactions are also known as FORMATION reactions. Two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a compound. A + B AB where A and B represent elements The elements may form ionic compounds, like Sodium metal and chlorine gas combine to form sodium chloride.

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl Sodium added to chlorine gas See pages 258 - 259 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 6 Types: Synthesis Example C + O2 C + O O O C O

C O O O C O O C O CC O O O C O O C C C OC OOC C OCO OO CO O O OO OO OOO General: 02/01/20 A + B AB

Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 7 OTHER EXAMPLES 1.Elements that form ionic compounds: Magnesium metal reacts with oxygen gas to form magnesium oxide. 2Mg + O2 2MgO 2. Elements that form covalent compounds: Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas join to form dinitrogen monoxide. 2N2 + O2 2N2O SYNTHESIS REACTION (iron + sulphur): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5H6DVe5FAI Dr Seemal Jelani

02/01/20 Chem-100 See pages 258 - 259 8 Decomposition reactions are the opposite of synthesis reactions. A compounds breaks down into two or more products (often elements). AB A + B where A and B represent elements 1. Ionic compounds may decompose to produce elements, like the following: Table salt, sodium chloride, can be broken down into sodium metal and chlorine gas by melting salt at 800C and running electricity through it.

2NaCl 2Na + Cl2 See page 260 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 9 Types: Decomposition Example: NaCl Cl Na General: 02/01/20 Cl

+ Na AB A + B Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 10 Types: Decomposition Example 2HgO O Hg Hg O Hg

Hg General: 02/01/20 + O O AB A + B Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 11 2. Covalent compounds may decompose into elements, like the following:

By running electricity through water, the water molecules decompose into hydrogen and oxygen gases. 2H2O 2H2 + O2 DECOMPOSITION REACTION: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=NddwtXEA_Ak See page 260 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 12 Single replacement reactions replace one element from a compound with another

element. A compound and an element react, and the element switches places with part of the original compound. A + BC B + AC where A is a metal, or A + BC C + BA where A is a non-metal See page 261 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 13 02/01/20 Dr Seemal Jelani

Chem-100 14 Types: Single displacement Example: Zn + CuCl2 Cl Cu Cl + General: 02/01/20 Zn

Cl Zn Cl + Cu AB + C AC + B Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 15 1. When A is a metal: Aluminum foil in a solution of copper(II) chloride produces solid copper and aluminum chloride. 2Al + 3CuCl2 3Cu + 2AlCl3

2. When A is a non-metal: When fluorine is bubbled through a sodium iodide solution, iodine and sodium fluoride are produced. Fl2 + 2NaI I2 + 2NaF 02/01/20 SINGLE REPLACEMENT: Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKtynbVtMKc 16 Double replacement reactions swap elements between 2 compounds that react together to form two new compounds. Two compounds react, with elements switching places between the original compounds. AB + CD AD + CB

See page 262 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 17 See page 262 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 18 Types: Double displacement Example: MgO + CaS Mg

O + General: 02/01/20 Ca Mg S S + Ca O

AB + CD AD + CB Dr Seemal Jelani Chem-100 19 Two solutions react to form a precipitate (solid) and another solution. Ionic solution + ionic solution ionic solution + ionic solid. AB + CD AD + CB When potassium chromate and silver nitrate react, they form a red precipitate, silver chromate, in a solution of potassium nitrate. K2CrO4 + 2AgNO3 Ag2CrO4 + 2KNO3 silver chromate

DOUBLE REPLACEMENT: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opY3FLrPTa4 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 20 Neutralization reactions occur when an acid (most compounds starting with H) and a base (most compounds ending in OH) react to form a salt and water. Neutralization reactions are a type of double replacement. Acid + base salt + water HX + MOH MX + H2O where X and M are elements

See page 263 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 21 1. Sulfuric acid is used to neutralize calcium hydroxide: H2SO4 + Ca(OH) 2 CaSO4 + 2H2O 2. Phosphoric acid helps to neutralize the compounds that cause rust, such as iron(II) hydroxide. H3PO4 + 3Fe(OH)2 Fe3(PO4)2 + 6H2O NEUTRALIZATION: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_P5hGzA6Vb0 See page 263 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20

Chem-100 22 Combustion reactions occur when a compound or element react with oxygen to release energy and produce an oxide. Also sometimes referred to as hydrocarbon combustion. CXHY + O2 CO2 + H2O where X and Y represent integers METHANOL + oxygen: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98JuJ-G1qXY&feature=related See page 264 Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100

23 1. Natural gas (methane) is burned in furnaces to heat homes. CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O + energy 2. An acetylene torch is used to weld metals together. 2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O + energy 3. Carbohydrates like glucose combine with oxygen in our body to release energy. Acetylene torch C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy See page 264 Dr Seemal Jelani

02/01/20 Chem-100 24 MOVIE TO REVIEW: http://www.bcscience.com/bc10/pgs/videos_013_chemical_reactions.html Dr Seemal Jelani 02/01/20 Chem-100 Take the Section 6.1 Quiz See page 265 25

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