Can we end the motherhood penalty in the workplace? Sally Brett Senior Policy Officer, TUC EHRC research findings 54,000 women a year are dismissed, made redundant when no one else is or are treated so badly they feel forced to leave 100,000 mothers a year experience harassment
or negative comments linked to pregnancy or flexible working 53,000 pregnant women a year are discouraged from attending ante-natal appointments EHRC research findings 70% of employers think a woman should declare upfront if shes pregnant during recruitment 25% said that its ok to ask women about
plans to have children during recruitment 1 in 10 mothers said they were treated worse on their return to work than before pregnancy Stories behind the statistics Pregnancy and maternity complaints 1 in 5 women complained to their employer High earners were 3 times more likely to raise issues with their employer than women
employed on a casual basis 1,851 women notified Acas of a potential pregnancy detriment or dismissal claim Only 790 women went to tribunal in 2014/15 Impact of tribunal fees on pregnancy claims 1,800 Pre-fees
1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 Post-fees 800 600 400
200 0 2012/13 2014/15 What needs to change: 1. Enforcement of maternity rights Employment tribunal fees must be abolished
Time limits for bringing claims needs to be extended to at least 6 months More support needs to be available to women through unions and advice sector Wider recommendation powers of tribunals need to be restored Employers need to be held accountable, e.g. publish return-to-work rates Motherhood penalty and fatherhood
bonus Mothers earned 11% less than women who hadnt had children by their late 30s Fathers earned 19% more than men who hadnt had children by their late 30s Mothers earned 26% less than fathers in their late 30s Fathers leave Two weeks paternity leave paid at 139.58 a
week or 26% of median weekly wage 146,000 working dads dont qualify for this leave due to lack of service or employment status Only half of dads take the full two weeks leave mainly because they cant afford to just a quarter of the lowest paid dads do Impact of shared parental leave Two in five working dads have gained no new
entitlement to leave Rights depend upon mother cutting short her maternity rights Estimated take up is between 2 and 8 per cent At most, just 0.2 per cent of male employees will be asking to take a period of extended leave a year Country
Fathers leave Payment Take up by fathers Iceland 13 weeks
80% of earnings (ceiling applies) 95%. Fathers take an average 92 days. Norway 12 weeks
Full earnings (ceiling applies) 90% take some leave and 21% take full 12 weeks. Sweden 10 weeks
80% of earnings (ceiling applies) 90% take leave and fathers take 25% of all parental leave days. Finland 9 weeks
70-75% of earnings 84% (ceiling applies) What needs to change: 2. Enabling shared care Make fathers leave day one right as maternity leave is Introduce an additional period of fathers only leave
Introduce a paternity allowance for those who fail to qualify for statutory paternity pay Improve statutory pay rates Balancing paid work and care Two in five mothers didnt request a form of flexible working they wanted, usually because they thought it would be turned down Hardening of attitudes by managers nearly 3 in 4 say up to individual to manage work with
family life (up from 1 in 2 in 2004) Rise in employer-imposed flexibility Balancing paid work and care Half of mothers who got flexible working experienced negative consequences Flexible workers often report greater workfamily conflict as boundaries between home and work blur Lack of jobs advertised on flexible basis only 6.2 per cent of jobs with FTE 20K salary offer
flexible work options What needs to change: 3. Creating time to care Promote flexible work at recruitment Managers need to manage flexibility by adapting workload and redesigning jobs Statutory rights to take parental leave/carers leave on a flexible basis More secure employment and adequate
notice of working hours Stop excessive working hours and value care
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