Outline for class session Response papers start next
Outline for class session Response papers start next week Final Paper discussion Impacts of climate change Response Papers Make connections across readings you use Provide evidence from articles to support your argument
Structure around ideas, not articles! Use headings, even in short paper How to do citations Use bibliography at end Final Paper Discussion What are the Likely Impacts of Climate Change?
4 Complete Climate Impacts Lecture Vulnerability how much do particularly climate impacts hurt BEFORE your community responds, and what determines that? Adaptive capacity what resources does your community have to respond to the
particular climate impacts it faces? Resilience how much pain remains after your community has adapted to those impacts and how robust is your community to a future in which those impacts will continue and continually change? Impacts of climate change National Geographic impacts video Kiribati video
If interested, also download this Powerpoint and watch Inuit film (start at 20:23) Overview of climate change impacts Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase Large and gradual as well as abrupt
changes in climate and ecosystems will occur Harm will depend on types of impacts, exposure, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and resilience Source: USGCRP, 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the US. Some impacts already on their way Inertia in the system due to:
Some GHGs stay in atmosphere a long time Changing Earth system: slow to start and slow to stop Weve loaded the system like twisting a rubber band Most aspects of climate change will persist for many centuries even if emissions of CO2 are stopped (IPCC, 2013). Even if the concentrations of all GHGs and aerosols had been kept constant at year 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0.1C per decade would be expected [for the next two decades] (IPCC, 2007).
Temp increases to date are exceeding earlier predictions 8 Source: USGCRP, 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the US. Other impacts depend on mitigation actions we take For the next two decades a warming of
about 0.2C per decade is projected for a range of SRES emissions scenarios. Afterwards, temperature projections increasingly depend on specific emissions scenarios (IPCC, 2007). 10 Major forecast climate changes Temperature increases (4F), especially at the
poles (16F) Precipitation changes: more floods, more droughts, less snow, heavier rain Hurricanes and other extreme events Sea level rise Ocean warming and acidification Possible abrupt climate changes Categories of impacts
12 You will experience these impacts personally Changes in many extreme weather and climate events have been observed since about 1950. It is very likely that the number of cold days and nights has decreased and the number of warm days and nights has increased
on the global scale. It is likely that the frequency of heat waves has increased in large parts of Europe, Asia and Australia. There are likely more land regions where the number of heavy precipitation events has increased than where it has decreased (IPCC, 2013). It is now likely that human influence has more than doubled the probability of occurrence of heat waves in some locations (IPCC, 2013) 13
Impacts vary by region Climate changes will vary by region Some areas warm more, others warm less Some areas get wetter, some dryer Vulnerability varies by region Coastal vs. inland Rainfall vs. aquifer dependent Adaptive capacity varies by region Poor vs. rich
Ease of adaptation (e.g., small island states vs. US) 14 Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 2009. Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Source: Barnett and Adger. Impacts vary by sector
17 Who and what gets harmed? What determines how bad it will be? Non-human impacts Climate outputs: how does climate respond to human-induced changes? Exposure: is person likely to experience the
impact? Vulnerability: if person does nothing, how likely and how large is harm? Adaptive capacity: what resources for reducing exposure vulnerability? Resilience: can unavoidable damage be absorbed and new status quo established? Harm experienced Non-human impacts
Many plants and animals cannot adapt or mutate quickly enough Southwest tortoises example Plants cant migrate fast enough Animals can migrate but their ecosystem partners (their predators and prey) are unlikely to migrate at same speed, upsetting ecosystem balances Ocean acidification
Non-human impacts Forest degradation due to pests, precip, and temp Invasive species changes Coral reef bleaching Habitat change and loss Species and biodiversity loss Killing off some species while making better
niches for others, particularly disease vectors Ocean acidification The other side of the CO2 coin CO2 absorbed into ocean waters Ocean acidifying, causing breakdown of
shells of animals at bottom of food chain Evidence that this is already occurring Source: IPCC, 2013 21 High CO2
Low CO2 Ocean acidification Scanning electron microscope pictures of coccolithophorids under different CO2 concentrations. a, b, c: at 300 ppmv and d, e, f at 780-850 ppmv. Note the difference in the coccolith structure (including distinct malformations) and in the degree of calcification of cells grown at normal and elevated CO2 levels. (Source: Riebesell, U, I Zondervan, B Rost, P Tortell, R Zeebe, and F Morel. 2000. Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2.
Nature 407 (21 September), 364-367.) Climate outputs vary Source: Gardiner, S. Perfect Moral Storm. Oxford UP, 2011, p. 23 Examples Shelter and location
Food and water Health War and conflict Climate impacts influenced by: Exposure is your community exposed to climate change: Switzerland/Bolivia vs. Bahamas/Kiribati Vulnerability factors that influence how much a climate impact hurts BEFORE your community
responds Adaptive capacity resources your community has to respond to climate impacts it faces Resilience how much pain does your community feel AFTER it has adapted and how robust is community to a future of expected and unexpected impacts Exposure varies Is person/country likely to experience a given impact?
Small islands: high exposure of population and infrastructure (IPCC Summary, p. 9) Asian and African megadeltas: high exposure to sea level rise, storm surges and river flooding. (IPCC Summary, p. 9) Geographic location Switzerland/Austria: no sea level rise Tahiti: no glacial retreat Droughts/floods increase in some regions, decrease in others Existing material infrastructure
Seawalls; Dutch polders Reliance on rainfall vs. ground water Vulnerability varies If person/country does nothing, how large is harm? Vulnerability is greater for those who have few resources and few choices (USGCRP, 100) Structural and infrastructural choices Dense population, near ocean
Knowledge of impending climate outputs and of how to respond can reduce vulnerability Privileged vs. marginalized matters: those with many resources/already advantaged socially are less vulnerable Community resources Vulnerability
R5, WGII, Chapter 13 Multidimensional Tschakert Vulnerability Livelihood dynamics under
simultaneous climatic, environmental, and socio-economic stressors and shocks leading to differential livelihood trajectories over time
AR5, WGII, Chapter 13 Tschakert Adaptive capacity varies What resources does person/country have to do something that reduces their exposure? Can they get out of the way (e.g., migration) More resources is better
How big is the adaptation task? Redesign a city? Different types of resources (next slide) Privileged vs. marginalized matters here too Adaptive capacity is intimately connected to social and economic development but is unevenly distributed (IPCC, 15). Structural vulnerabilities: NOT their fault but due to colonial history and current world economic structure Some outputs cannot be adapted to: small-island states
Adaptive capacity Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 2009. Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate What vulnerability and adaptation look like. 676 villages identified in Fiji as vulnerable to climate change and, therefore, potentially
needing to move Video showing one village relocating Resilience varies How capable is person/country to absorb such damage as they cant avoid, and adapt to the new status quo? Cultural traditions matter Personal traits matter
Ingenuity and flexibility And some outcomes cannot be adapted to, so Unmitigated climate change would, in the long term, be likely to exceed the capacity of natural, managed, and human systems to adapt (IPCC, 2007) Accept the losses and changes that we must
live with because we cant avoid or adapt to them Injustice: nations facing rising oceans and drought are those least responsible for the problem, and they have the least resources to cope with them (Parks et al. 337) Some countries, like SIDS, will lose everything Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 2009. Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate
QUESTIONS? 36 Iclickers What types of impacts are MOST likely to motivate you to action? A. Declining human health B. Species going extinct
C. People in developing countries D. Destruction of ecosystems Iclickers What types of impacts are you MOST worried about? A. Long, gradual and continuous changes B. Abrupt, non-linear changes
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