Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition ToolKit B
Systems Analysis and Design 10th Edition ToolKit B The Systems Analysts Toolkit CASE Tools Chapter Objectives Explain CASE tools and the concept of a CASE environment Trace the history of CASE tools and their role in a fourth-generation environment Define CASE terms and concepts, including a repository, modeling tools, documentation tools, engineering tools, and construction tools Explain an integrated development environment (IDE) and application life cycle management (ALM) solutions Provide examples of CASE tool features
Describe CASE tool trends, and how they relate to object-oriented analysis and agile methods 2 Overview of CASE Tools Every type of work requires specific tools to do the job properly Carpenters use hammers, drills, or screwdrivers Chefs measuring cups, knives, or spatulas
System development is no different CASE tools can reduce costs, speed up development, and provide comprehensive documentation for future maintenance or enhancements 3 Overview of CASE Tools (Cont.) CASE Tools History In the past, programmers used tools such as editors and code debuggers to write mainframe
computer applications in procedural programming languages such as COBOL Fourth-generation language environments include modern CASE tools so system developers can deliver high quality software, shorten the timetable, and reduce expense 4 Overview of CASE Tools (Cont.) The Marketplace for CASE Tools There is a wide variety of vendors and products,
and no one tool dominates the market Selecting a CASE tool involves deciding on the type of project, its size and scope, possible budgetary and time constraints, and the preferences and experience of the system development team FIGURE TK B-3 This site offers many free downloads, such as the UML modeling tool shown here 5
CASE Terms and Concepts Repository A repository is a database that serves as a central storage location for all information about the system being developed Once a data element has been defined in the repository, it can be accessed and used by processes and other information systems 6 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.)
FIGURE TK B-5 A Visible Analyst repository search for the data element named CUSTOMER NUMBER. The results will show all instances of the data element 7 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.) Individual Tools Can be used to model, document, engineer, and construct the information system MODELING TOOLS
Unified Modeling Language diagrams and functional decomposition diagrams (Chapter 4) Data flow diagrams (Chapter 5) Object diagrams (Chapter 6) Entity-relationship diagrams (Chapter 9) Structure charts (Chapter 10) 8 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.) DOCUMENTATION TOOLS Main source of system documentation is the Repository
Many CASE products provide tools that check automatically for inconsistent or incomplete information in forms, reports, and diagrams ENGINEERING TOOLS Forward engineering translates business processes into applications Reverse engineering takes an existing application and breaks it down into diagrams, structure charts, and
source code FIGURE TK B-6 Imagix claims that its reverse engineering tool can automate many expensive, time-consuming tasks 9 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.) CONSTRUCTION TOOLS An application generator, also called a code
generator, allows you to develop computer programs rapidly by translating a logical model directly into code FIGURE TK B-7 Tangible Architect includes a code generator that can create .NET database applications 10 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.)
CONSTRUCTION TOOLS (Cont.) A screen generator, or form painter, is an interactive tool that helps you design a custom interface, create screen forms, and handle data entry format and procedures FIGURE TK B-8 Gillanis FourGen CASE tools include a form painter and a screen code generator
11 CASE Terms and Concepts (Cont.) CONSTRUCTION TOOLS (Cont.) A report generator, also called a report writer, is a tool for designing formatted reports rapidly FIGURE TK B-9 SAP Crystal Reports is a popular report generator that can display business analytics and support decision-making 12
Development Environments Integrated Development Environments (IDE) uses built-in tools provided by the software vendor that make it easier to create applications based on their products Application Life Cycle Management Environment (ALM) refers to a start-to-finish approach to planning, designing, developing, deploying, managing, and maintaining an information system ALM tools and processes can help an organization speed up systems development and reduce costs 13
Development Environments (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-10 Microsofts Visual Studio 2012 stresses the benefits of ALM 14 Development Environments (Cont.) Pros and Cons of Integrated Development Tools In a specific software environment, an integrated development tool is highly effective because it is built into the vendors software package The only possible disadvantage is that each IDE is
different, and requires a learning curve and skills that might or might not be readily transferable In contrast, non-specific CASE tools such as Visible Analyst or Rational System Architect can be used in any development environment 15 Development Environments (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-11 Note IBMs reference to silos, and the emphasis on life cycle management 16 Development Environments
(Cont.) FIGURE TK B-12 Gartner views ALM as an emerging market, driven by new technology and corporate pressure for cost reduction 17 CASE Tool Examples Visible Analyst The Visible Analyst CASE tool can generate many types of models and diagrams including an entityrelationship diagram and a data flow diagram Rational Software IBM offers many systems development and
modeling products, including a powerful tool called Rational System Architect IBM claims that the product stresses modeling and collaboration, and is a suite of tools that can align processes, information, and technologies 18 CASE Tool Examples (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-13 These Visible Analyst diagrams integrate with a central data repository for the Library System
19 CASE Tool Examples (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-14 The repository for the Library System stores the objects that appear in models, diagrams, and definitions 20 CASE Tool Examples (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-15 IBMs Rational Systems Architect stresses
collaboration and integration. Note the use of the term silos, which was mentioned in the IBM Redpaper shown in Figure TK B11 on page 591 21 CASE Tool Trends New Products and Features CASE tool vendors constantly offer more features and greater flexibility Examples include a framework to help transform business processes into an information system Zachman Framework (shown on next slide) arranges traditional fact-finding questions into a useful matrix
The vertical axis shows five development stages and stakeholder roles The horizontal axis displays six essential fact-finding questions 22 CASE Tool Trends (Cont.) FIGURE TK B-16 The Zachman Framework provides an easy-tofollow matrix that helps system developers work on specific areas, and then integrate the results into an overall model 23
CASE Tool Trends (Cont.) Method-Specific CASE Tools Structured development relies heavily on DFDs and structure charts Traditional approach that is time-tested and easy to understand Object-oriented methods use a variety of diagrams, such as use case, class, sequence, and transition state diagrams object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is very popular
Agile methods tend to use spiral or other iterative models Agile developers use a wide range of modeling tools, including CASE tools 24 Toolkit Summary
CASE stands for computer-aided systems engineering. CASE tools are software programs that system developers use to help them design and construct information systems Older systems used program code that was written in procedural languages while modern languages are non-procedural Non-procedural languages allow system developers to develop accurate prototypes, cut development time, and reduce expense 25 Chapter Summary
(Cont.) A repository is a database that serves as a central storage location for all information about the system being developed An integrated set of CASE tools can be used to model, document, engineer, and construct the information system The main source of system documentation is the repository, which identifies new elements and adds
them to the database Forward engineering means translating business processes and functions into applications 26 Chapter Summary (Cont.) Reverse engineering allows you to examine an
existing application and break it down into a series of diagrams, structure charts, and, in some cases, source code A CASE tool can handle many program development tasks, such as generating application code, screens, and reports An integrated development environment (IDE) uses a built-in CASE tool that a software vendor includes to make it easier to plan, construct, and maintain a specific software product 27 Chapter Summary
(Cont.) Many vendors, including IBM and Microsoft, are calling attention to application life cycle management (ALM) concepts and tools Two trends seem clear CASE tool vendors will continue to include powerful new features The popularity of object-oriented tools will continue to grow 28
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