Chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko
Figure 2.0_1 Figure 2.0_2 Chapter 2: Big Ideas Elements, Atoms, and Compounds Chemical Bonds Waters LifeSupporting Properties
Figure 2.0_3 Introduction Chemicals are the stuff that make up our bodies, the bodies of other organisms, and the physical environment. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Introduction
Lifes chemistry is tied to water. Life first evolved in water. All living organisms require water. The chemical reactions of your body occur in cells consisting of 7095% water. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ELEMENTS, ATOMS, AND COMPOUNDS 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.1 Organisms are composed of elements, in combinations called compounds Living organisms are composed of matter, which is anything that occupies space and has mass (weight). Matter is composed of chemical elements. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances. There are 92 elements in natureonly a few exist in a pure state.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 2.1 2.1 Organisms are composed of elements, in combinations called compounds A compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio. Compounds are more common than pure elements. Sodium chloride, table salt, is a common compound of equal parts of sodium (Na) and
Figure 2.1_4 Sodium chloride 2.1 Organisms are composed of elements, in combinations called compounds About 25 elements are essential to life. Four elements make up about 96% of the weight of most living organisms. These are oxygen, carbon,
hydrogen, and nitrogen. Trace elements are essential but are only needed in minute quantities. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.2 CONNECTION: Trace elements are common additives to food and water Some trace elements are required to prevent disease. Without iron, your body cannot transport oxygen.
An iodine deficiency prevents production of thyroid hormones, resulting in goiter. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.2A 2.2 CONNECTION: Trace elements are common additives to food and water Fluoride is added to municipal water and dental products to help reduce tooth decay.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.2B 2.2 CONNECTION: Trace elements are common additives to food and water Several chemicals are added to food to help preserve it, make it more nutritious, and/or make it look better. Check out the Nutrition Facts label on foods and
drinks you purchase. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.2C 2.3 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons Each element consists of one kind of atom. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. Three subatomic particles in atoms are relevant to
our discussion of the properties of elements. Protons are positively charged. Electrons are negatively charged. Neutrons are electrically neutral. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.3 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons Neutrons and protons are packed into an atoms nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus. The negative charge of electrons and the positive
charge of protons keep electrons near the nucleus. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.3A Helium Nucleus 2e Electron cloud
2 Protons 2 Neutrons 2 Electrons
Mass number 4 2.3 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons The number of protons is the atoms atomic number. An atoms mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The atomic mass is approximately equal to its mass number. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 2.3B Carbon Electron cloud 6e Nucleus 6
Protons 6 Neutrons 6 Electrons Mass number 12
2.3 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons Although all atoms of an element have the same atomic number, some differ in mass number. Different isotopes of an element have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Different isotopes of an element behave identically in chemical reactions. In radioactive isotopes, the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 2.3 2.4 CONNECTION: Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us Living cells cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element. Therefore, radioactive compounds in metabolic processes can act as tracers. This radioactivity can be detected by instruments. Using these instruments, the fate of radioactive tracers
can be monitored in living organisms. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.4 CONNECTION: Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us Radioactive tracers are frequently used in medical diagnosis. Sophisticated imaging instruments are used to detect them. An imaging instrument that uses positron-emission tomography (PET) detects the location of injected
radioactive materials. PET is useful for diagnosing heart disorders, cancer, and in brain research. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.4A Figure 2.4B Healthy person
Alzheimers patient 2.4 CONNECTION: Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us In addition to benefits, there are also dangers associated with using radioactive substances. Uncontrolled exposure can cause damage to some molecules in a living cell, especially DNA. Chemical bonds are broken by the emitted energy, which causes abnormal bonds to form. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
CHEMICAL BONDS 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.5 The distribution of electrons determines an atoms chemical properties Of the three subatomic particlesprotons, neutrons, and electronsonly electrons are directly involved in chemical activity. Electrons occur in energy levels called electron shells.
Information about the distribution of electrons is found in the periodic table of the elements. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.5 Helium Hydrogen First shell
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen
Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon
Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Second shell Third
Chlorine Argon 2.5 The distribution of electrons determines an atoms chemical properties An atom may have one, two, or three electron shells surrounding the nucleus. The number of electrons in the outermost shell determines the chemical properties of the atom. Atoms whose outer shells are not full tend to interact with other atoms, participating in chemical reactions.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.5 The distribution of electrons determines an atoms chemical properties Atoms with incomplete outer shells tend to react so that both atoms end up with completed outer shells. These atoms may react with each other by sharing, donating, or receiving electrons. These interactions usually result in atoms staying close together, held by attractions called chemical
bonds. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.6 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing The strongest kind of chemical bond is a covalent bond in which two atoms share one or more outershell electrons. Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds form a molecule. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Animation: Covalent Bonds Right click on animation / Click play 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.6 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing A covalent bond connects two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of the gas H2. There are four alternative ways to represent common molecules.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 2.6 Table 2.6_1 Table 2.6_2 2.6 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing Atoms in a covalently bonded molecule continually compete for shared electrons.
The attraction (pull) for shared electrons is called electronegativity. More electronegative atoms pull harder. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.6 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing In molecules of only one element, the pull toward each atom is equal, because each atom has the same electronegativity. The bonds formed are called nonpolar covalent
bonds. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.6 Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing Water has atoms with different electronegativities. Oxygen attracts the shared electrons more strongly than hydrogen. So, the shared electrons spend more time near oxygen. The oxygen atom has a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen atoms have a slightly positive charge.
The result is a polar covalent bond. Because of these polar covalent bonds, water is a polar molecule. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.6 (slightly ) (slightly ) (slightly )
2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from gain or loss of electrons. When an electron is lost, a positive charge results. When an electron is gained, a negative charge results. Two ions with opposite charges attract each other. When the attraction holds the ions together, it is called an ionic bond. Salt is a synonym for an ionic compound.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Ionic Bonds Right click on animation / Click play 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.7A_s2 Transfer of electron Na
Sodium atom Cl Chlorine atom Figure 2.7A_s2 Transfer of electron Na Sodium atom
Cl Chlorine atom Na Sodium ion Cl Chloride ion Sodium chloride (NaCl) Figure 2.7B
Cl Na Figure 2.7B_1 2.8 Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life Most large molecules are held in their threedimensional functional shape by weak bonds. Hydrogen, as part of a polar covalent bond, has a partial positive charge. The charged regions on molecules are electrically
attracted to oppositely charged regions on neighboring molecules. Because the positively charged region is always a hydrogen atom, the bond is called a hydrogen bond. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Water Structure Right click on animation / Click play 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.8
Hydrogen bond 2.9 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds Remember that the structure of atoms and molecules determines the way they behave. Remember that atoms combine to form molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen can react to form water: 2H2 + O2 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
2H2O 2.9 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is an example of a chemical reaction. The reactants (H2 and O2) are converted to H2O, the product. Chemical reactions do not create or destroy matter. Chemical reactions only rearrange matter. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 2.9 2 H2 O2 Reactants 2 H2O Products
2.9 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that is essential to life on Earth. Carbon dioxide (from the air) reacts with water. Sunlight powers the conversion to produce the products glucose and oxygen. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. WATERS LIFE-SUPPORTING
PROPERTIES 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.10 Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive The tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together is cohesion. Cohesion is much stronger for water than other liquids. Most plants depend upon cohesion to help transport water and nutrients from their roots to their leaves. The tendency of two kinds of molecules to stick
together is adhesion. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.10 Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive Cohesion is related to surface tensiona measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid. Hydrogen bonds give water high surface tension, making it behave as if it were coated with an invisible film. Water striders stand on water without breaking the
water surface. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Water Transport Right click on animation / Click play 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.10 2.11 Waters hydrogen bonds moderate temperature
Because of hydrogen bonding, water has a greater ability to resist temperature change than other liquids. Heat is the energy associated with movement of atoms and molecules in matter. Temperature measures the intensity of heat. Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form. Heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
2.11 Waters hydrogen bonds moderate temperature When a substance evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down, in the process of evaporative cooling. This cooling occurs because the molecules with the greatest energy leave the surface. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.11
2.12 Ice is less dense than liquid water Water can exist as a gas, liquid, or solid. Water is less dense as a solid than a liquid because of hydrogen bonding. When water freezes, each molecule forms a stable hydrogen bond with its neighbors. As ice crystals form, the molecules are less densely packed than in liquid water. Because ice is less dense than water, it floats. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 2.12 Ice Hydrogen bonds are stable. Hydrogen bond Liquid water Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form. Figure 2.12
Ice Hydrogen bonds are stable. Liquid water Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form. 2.13 Water is the solvent of life A solution is a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving agent is the solvent. The substance that is dissolved is the solute.
An aqueous solution is one in which water is the solvent. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.13 Water is the solvent of life Waters versatility as a solvent results from the polarity of its molecules. Polar or charged solutes dissolve when water molecules surround them, forming aqueous solutions. Table salt is an example of a solute that will go into
solution in water. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.13 Ion in solution Salt crystal 2.14 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and
basic conditions In aqueous solutions, a small percentage of water molecules break apart into ions. Some are hydrogen ions (H+). Some are hydroxide ions (OH). Both types are very reactive. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.14 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions A compound that releases H+ to a solution is an
acid. A compound that accepts H+ is a base. The pH scale describes how acidic or basic a solution is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with zero the most acidic and 14 the most basic. Each pH unit represents a tenfold change in the concentration of H+. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.14 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and
basic conditions A buffer is a substance that minimizes changes in pH. Buffers accept H+ when it is in excess and donate H+ when it is depleted. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.14 pH scale Increasingly ACIDIC
(Higher H concentration) Battery acid Lemon juice, gastric juice Acidic solution Vinegar, cola Tomato juice
Rainwater Human urine Saliva NEUTRAL [H][OH] Pure water Human blood, tears Neutral solution
ocean acidification threaten the environment When we burn fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), airpolluting compounds and CO2 are released into the atmosphere. Sulfur and nitrous oxides react with water in the air to form acids. These acids fall to Earth as acid precipitation, which is rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.2. CO2 dissolving in seawater lowers ocean pH in a process known as ocean acidification. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 2.15 2.16 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The search for extraterrestrial life centers on the search for water The emergent properties of water support life on Earth. When astrobiologists search for signs of extraterrestrial life on distant planets, they look for evidence of water. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has found evidence that
water was once abundant on Mars. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.16 You should now be able to 1. Describe the importance of chemical elements to living organisms. 2. Explain the formation of compounds. 3. Describe the structure of an atom. 4. Distinguish between ionic, hydrogen, and covalent bonds.
5. Define a chemical reaction and explain how it changes the composition of matter. 6. List and define the life-supporting properties of water. 7. Explain the pH scale and the formation of acid and base solutions. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 2.UN01 Nucleus Electrons ( charge) form negative cloud
and determine chemical behavior Protons ( charge) determine element Neutrons (no charge) determine isotope Atom Figure 2.UN02
Liquid water: Hydrogen bonds form and break Ice: Stable hydrogen bonds Figure 2.UN03 Atoms have positively charged
(a) have neutral have negatively charged (b) number present equals
(c) number may differ in atomic number of each element number in outer shell determines formation of
(d) Chemical Bonds electron transfer electron sharing between atoms between atoms creates creates ions attraction between ions creates
(e) unequal equal sharing creates sharing creates (g) (f) example is
water has important qualities due to polarity and nonpolar covalent bonds can lead to (h)
Figure 2.UN03_1 Atoms have positively charged (a) number present equals atomic number of each element
have neutral have negatively charged (b) (c) number may differ in
(d) Chemical Bonds number in outer shell determines formation of Figure 2.UN03_2 Chemical
Bonds electron transfer between atoms creates ions attraction between ions creates (f) (e) unequal
sharing creates equal sharing creates nonpolar covalent bonds (g) can lead to
example is water electron sharing between atoms creates has important qualities due to polarity and
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