Make Sense of Spelling and Spell Well! Presented by Cherry Carl What Does Research Say? The spelling system of English makes sense . . . most of the time! (Words that are related in meaning are often related in spelling as well, despite changes in sound.) Example: define and definition
What Does Research Say? Effective spelling instruction powerfully supports the nature and development of the reading process. An active search for pattern builds word knowledge that serves both the encoding and the decoding of words. Example: doubling consonants in tap and hop (tapped and hopped as opposed to taped and hoped). What Does Research Say? Spelling instruction in the middle grades
provides a bridge to vocabulary instruction. Explain how to spell known words by connecting to unknown that are similar in spelling and meaning. Example: president and preside What Does Research Say? Spelling assessments have been developed that pinpoint students level of spelling development. Teachers can identify the types of words and patterns that are most appropriate for spelling study.
Spelling Assessment Tools Bear, D. et al (2000). Words their way: Word study for phonics, spelling, and vocabulary development. Ganske, K (1999). The developmental spelling analysis: A measure of orthographic knowledge. Masterson, J.J., et al (2002). SPELL: Spelling performance evaluation for language and literacy. Research-Based Spelling Instruction
Phonology-based spelling instruction Phonics-based spelling instruction Pattern and rule-based spelling instruction Semantics and morphology-based instruction Mental orthographic image-based spelling instruction
Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Phonology-Based Instruction Foster awareness of sounds in words with the understanding that letters are used to represent sounds in words. Encourage students to sound out phonetically-spelled words and write the letters as they say each sound. Introduce sounds in a sequence that reflects perceptual and linguistic complexity.
Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Phonology-Based Instruction Control the complexity of other sounds and letters in the words when introducing a new spelling pattern. Ask students to create new words by adding, omitting, changing one of the sounds in a word. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only.
Phonics-Based Instruction Teach the different letters and letter combinations that can represent a sound. Display the alphabet on the classroom wall; establish key words for alphabetic letters. Encourage letter hunts for all the letters in a list of words that have the same sound. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Phonics-Based Instruction
Use word sorts to sort words according to different spellings of the same sound. Ask the students to create and keep a list of allowable spellings for each sound. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Pattern/Rule-Based Instruction Develop knowledge of patterns and rules for combining letters to spell words. The most important rule is . . . Dont teach the
rule! Create opportunities for students to discover the pattern or rule and to use their own words to describe the pattern or rule. Teach spelling patterns in a sequence that reflects orthographic complexity. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Pattern/Rule-Based Instruction Contrast the correct spelling of a target pattern with another familiar word (e.g., rate vs. rat); guide students through explaining how and why
the words look different. Group weekly spelling words together according to target pattern; add words to the list so that each target pattern is represented by at least 3-4 words. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Semantics and Morphology-Based Instruction Use the meaning of words and parts of words to spell. Discuss meaning of words and identify
relationships between and among words. Teach correct spelling of prefixes and suffixes along with the meaning of these word parts. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Semantics and Morphology-Based Instruction Create opportunities for students to discover rules for modifying words when adding affixes. Teach words that do not involve a modification to the base word when adding an affix before teaching words that involve a phonological
and/or orthographic change to the base word. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Mental Orthographic Image-Based Instruction Develop clear and complete mental images of words in long-term memory. Always encourage students to print the word rather than recite the words spelling. Discuss characteristics of the printed word; visualize the word.
Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for non-commercial use only. Mental Orthographic Image-Based Instruction Present intentional misspellings for correction by students; encourage students to try the different possible spellings to see which one looks right. Encourage students self-monitoring and proofing of their own work. Allow students with poor penmanship to use a word process for their writing work. Source: Learning by Design, Inc., 2004. Permission to reprint for
non-commercial use only. Spell Well Activities Selected Spelling Activities For Practice at School or at Home Spell Well Activities
Letter Tiles Rhyme Time Headlines Color and Cut Sand in the Hand Tic-Tac-Toe
Code Words Graph it! Fun Food Finger Paint More Spell Well Activities
Words of Clay Practice Makes Perfect Figure This Lets Talk Word Art Now Hear This! Name That Pat
1-2-3 Flexible Practice Gibberish Even More Spell Well Activities
Design It Guess What! Sky Writing Its a Match Take a Stretch Tongue Twisters Puzzle Me This
Picture This Bingo! Thats An Order Three Cheers for Spelling More Spell Well Activities
Match It Categories String a Word Say That Again Are You Listening? Cloze the Gap Find a Word Crossword Magic
Jingle Spell References and Resources Bear, D. et al (2000). Words their way: Word study for phonics, spelling, and vocabulary development. Phenix, Jo (2004). The Spelling Teachers Book of Lists. Ganske, K. (2005). Word Journeys. Fountas and Pinnell (1998). Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom. Rasinski, et al (2000). Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies From The Reading Teacher
Anything by Donald Gentry or Diane Snowball! Quotable Quotes "My spelling is Wobbly. It's good spelling but it Wobbles, and the letters get in the wrong places." -- A. A. Milne
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