Raman Spectroscopy A) Introduction 1.) Raman spectroscopy: complementary

Raman Spectroscopy A) Introduction 1.) Raman spectroscopy: complementary

Raman Spectroscopy A) Introduction 1.) Raman spectroscopy: complementary to IR spectroscopy. - radiation at a certain frequency is scattered by the molecule with shifts in the wavelength of the incident beam. - observed frequency shifts are related to vibrational changes in the molecule associated with IR absorbance. - Raman Scattering Spectrum Resembles IR absorbance spectrum - Raman & IR mechanism differ a) comparison of Raman & IR: IR i. vibrational modes Raman vibrational modes

ii. change in dipole change in polarizability extend - compress + - iii. excitation of molecule to excited vibrational state momentary distortion of the electrons distributed around the bond iv. asymmetric vibrations (active)

symmetric vibrations (active) 2.) Basic Principals of Raman Spectroscopy: - light is scattered by the sample at various angles by momentary absorption to virtual state and reemission No change in electronic states Infinite number of virtual states energy absorbed by molecule from photon of light not quantized

- some scattered emissions occur at the same energy while others return in a different state Rayleigh Scattering no change in energy hin = hout Raman Scattering net change in energy hin <> hout Elastic: collision between photon and molecule results in no change in energy Inelastic: collision between photon and molecule results in a net change in energy Two Types of Raman Scattering Anti-Stokes: E = h + E

Stokes: E = h - E E the energy of the first vibration level of the ground state IR vibration absorbance Raman frequency shift and IR absorption peak frequency are identical - Resulting Raman Spectrum Lower energy higher energy Probability of Emission Observed Intensity Raleigh scattering >> Stokes >> anti-Stokes difference in population of energy levels of vibrational transitions

Intensity of Raman lines are 0.001% intensity of the source 3.) Active Raman Vibrations: - need change in polarizability of molecule during vibration - polarizability related to electron cloud distribution example: O=C=O IR inactive Raman active O=C=O IR active Raman inactive

IR & Raman are complimentary. Can be cases where vibration is both IR & Raman active (eg. SO2 non-linear molecule) O In general: C IR tends to emphasize polar functional groups (R-OH, , etc.) Raman emphasizes aromatic & carbon backbone (C=C, -CH2-, etc.) - Raman does not see many common polar solvents can use with aqueous samples advantage over IR Raman frequency range: 4000 -50 cm-1(Stokes and anti-stokes) - comparison of Raman and IR Spectra 4.)

Instrumentation: - Basic design i. ) Light source: - generally a laser to get required intensity of light for reasonable S/N Raman scattering is only 0.001% of light source - Doesnt have to be in IR region, since look at changes around central peak. visible source used because of high intensity allows use of glass/quartz sample cells & optics UV/Vis type detectors (photomultiplier tubes) 4.) Applications: a) Qualitative Information i. characteristic regions for different groups as in IR ii. Raman correlation charts available iii. Good for aqueous based samples

iv. Useful for a variety of samples, organic, inorganic & biological b) Quantitative Information not routinely used i. fewer technical problems than IR, fewer peaks ii. Interference from fluorescence iii. Higher cost iii. Signal weak require modified Raman methods 1) Resonance Raman spectroscopy allows detection of 10-3 ->10-7M by using lasers light with wavelength approaching electronic absorption 2) Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy places samples on metal or rough surfaces that increase Raman scattering

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