Department of Defense AT Level I OCONUS-B Training

Department of Defense AT Level I OCONUS-B Training

Department of Defense AT Level I OCONUS-B Training Introduction September 2013 1 About This Training Designed by JCS in coordination with OSD and Services Designed to increase awareness of terrorism and improve ability to apply personal protective measures Meets the annual requirement for Level I antiterrorism training prescribed by DoDI . 2000.16

Complements Web-based and CD-ROM training 2 Learning Objectives Understand the terrorist threat Understand how to employ situation-based measures to lower your vulnerability Recognize proper responses to threat actions Understand how to support unit security 3 Introduction to the AT Level I Training Threat is a real and present danger. Remain vigilant while executing responsibilities. International terrorist network may be present where you serve.

Personal safety is important: Remain alert Be aware of your surroundings America's effort to fight terrorism includes everyone Report suspicious activity Pay attention to antiterrorism briefings Make security part of your routine Do not be a tempting target! 4 Threat Factors There are eight factors you should consider to understand the threat. 1. Are terrorist groups in the area? 2. Are they violent? 3. Do they attack Americans?

4. How active are they? 5. How sophisticated are they? Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) may be disguised as everyday items 6. Are they predictable? 7. Will local citizens warn Americans? 8. What tactics and weapons are used? 5 How Terrorists Identify and Select Targets Consider ways you might become a victim of a terrorist attack: Location: Avoid possible target locations Association: Avoid disclosing your

DOD or US Government affiliation Opportunity: Terrorists look for "soft targets While overseas it is advisable to conceal your DOD affiliation To attack you, terrorists generally must perceive you, your association, or your location as a target. 6 Combatant Command Overview DOD personnel and assets have been targeted in virtually every region of the world. When traveling, you should receive a Combatant Command terrorist threat briefing 90 days prior to departure.

Modify your personal protective measures based upon the information in these briefings. Threats vary in different parts of the world 7 NORTHCOM Region Within the United States, several organizations and individuals use terrorist tactics to achieve their goals. Prior attack methods include: Vehicle bombs Letter bombs Skyjacked aircraft Biological weapons In 2001, anthrax tainted letters were sent to several prominent

individuals Prior attacks in NORTHCOM include: Plot to attack Ft Dix United Flight 93 Oklahoma City Bombing 8 CENTCOM Region Within the CENTCOM Region, the primary terrorist threat is from Islamic extremists. Prior attack methods include: Vehicle bombs / IEDs Assaults with small arms Kidnappings Murder Terrorists used a VBIED to attack Khobar Towers in 1996

Prior attacks in CENTCOM include: USS Cole Deir el-Bahri Khobar Towers 9 EUCOM Region The EUCOM region threats include traditional nationalist, ethnic, and leftist terrorist groups. Prior attack methods include: IEDs Suicide bombers Kidnappings Assassinations Suicide bombers attacked the London mass transit in 2005

Prior attacks in EUCOM include: London subway bombing Bombing of the La Belle Discotheque Attack against CAPT Tsantes 10 AFRICOM Region Stability in the AFRICOM region is threatened by nationalist, tribal, and ethnic groups. The region is also threatened by Islamic extremists. Prior attack methods include: Vehicle bombs Kidnappings Arson / sabotage In 2002, terrorists targeted the Paradise Hotel and a passenger airliner in Mombasa, Kenya

Murder Prior attacks in AFRICOM Include: African embassy bombings Paradise hotel 11 PACOM Region Primary threat from various religious extremists and separatists. Prior attack methods include: Vehicle bombs / IEDs Kidnappings Murder Biological weapons In 2008, terrorists attacked multiple targets in Mumbai, India including the Taj Mahal Hotel

Prior attacks in PACOM include: Multiple attacks in Mumbai, India Bali nightclub bombing Anthrax attack on Japanese subway 12 SOUTHCOM Region The primary terrorist threat in the SOUTHCOM region is narco-terrorism and radical leftist groups. Prior attack methods include: Bombings Arson Assassination Kidnapping Narcoterrorism, demonstrated by the 2011 Casino Royale attack in

Mexico, is a growing concern Prior attacks in SOUTHCOM include: Diplomatic residence in Lima, Peru Albert Schaufelberger Zona Rosa 13 Terrorist Planning Cycle Overview Be alert to signs of intelligence gathering, surveillance, collecting materials for attack, and rehearsals: Taking photos or videos of potential targets Writing notes or sketching Showing abnormal attention to details of security measures Terrorists prepare for and conduct attacks through

predictable steps . Using false identification Paying cash for items normally bought on credit Purchasing large quantities of items such as chemicals or cell phones 14 Terrorist Planning Cycle Phases 1 & 2 Phase 1: Broad Target Selection Terrorists collect information on numerous targets Map of the Mumbai Peninsula identifying the most prominent targets from the 2008 attacks

Evaluate target potential in terms of symbolic value, casualties, infrastructure criticality, or public attention Phase 2: Intelligence Gathering and Surveillance Targets able to meet attack objectives are selected for additional surveillance Terrorists seek information on guard forces, physical layout, personnel routines, and standard operating procedures 15 Terrorist Planning Cycle Phases 3 & 4 Phase 3: Specific Target Selection Specific targets identified based on

anticipated effects, publicity, consistency with objectives, and costs versus benefits Phase 4: Pre-attack Surveillance and Planning The equipment used by terrorist teams during the Mumbai attacks Terrorists may conduct additional surveillance to confirm previous information and gain additional details Terrorists select attack method, obtain weapons and equipment, recruit specialized operatives, and design escape routes 16

Terrorist Planning Cycle Phases 5 & 6 Phase 5: Rehearsals Terrorists rehearse the attack scenario to confirm planning assumptions, enhance tactics, and practice escape routes May also trigger an incident at the target site to test response actions Phase 6: Actions on the Objective Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusis is the busiest railway station in India Terrorists execute attacks when conditions favor success with the lowest risk Factors include surprise, time and place, use of diversionary tactics,

and ways to impede response measures 17 Terrorist Planning Cycle Phase 7 Phase 7: Escape and Exploitation Unless an operation is a suicide attack, escape routes are carefully planned and rehearsed Terrorists may exploit successful attacks by releasing pre-developed statements to the press Ajmal Kasab was the only

terrorist captured alive during the 2008 Mumbai attacks 18 FPCONs US military facilities use protective measures organized in a system called Force Protection Conditions, or FPCONs. As the threat of attack changes, Commanders change the FPCON to protect personnel. Terrorists used a VBIED to attack Rhein-Main Air Base in 1985 FPCONs are organized in five levels with

increased protection at each level: NORMAL, ALPHA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, and DELTA. 19 Section 2: Situation-Based Training 20 AT Fundamentals Introduction Modules presented: Surveillance detection Security at a Government facility Residential security Off-duty / free time activities Air travel security Ground travel security Hotel security

AT Level I themes: Anticipate; Be Vigilant; Dont be a Target; Respond and Report Hostage survival CBRNE 21 Anticipate Anticipating threats, risks, and vulnerabilities is fundamental to antiterrorism and personal security. Ways to do this include: Research terrorist activity Understand tactics and techniques Know types of targets and locations Several sources allow you to research threats for yourself

Consider consulting these sources: Embassy Regional Security Officer State Department Travel Warnings Other internet and media resources 22 Be Vigilant Vigilance is required to continuously observe your surroundings and recognize suspicious activities. Understand your environment's normal conditions. Knowledge of the normal amplifies abnormal activities. Items that are out of place

Vigilance can thwart many terrorist attacks Attempted surveillance Circumstances that correspond to prior criminal activity in your area Informed vigilance is fundamental to personal security. 23 Don't be a Target Blend in with your surroundings: Do not wear clothing or carry items that identify your DOD affiliation Remain low key Avoid places were Americans are known to congregate Reduce vulnerability and exposure: DOD affiliation may also identify

you as a potential target Select places with security measures Be unpredictable Travel in a small group Use automobiles and residences with adequate security features 24 Report and Respond Report suspicious activities to appropriate authorities: Report suspicious activity, do not try to deal with it yourself In threatening situations, take steps to reduce your exposure Follow the instructions of

emergency personnel and first responders The Fort Dix attack plot was thwarted by an alert store clerk Security is a team effort. 25 AT Fundamentals Quiz 1 To reduce your exposure you should wear clothing with DOD logos and symbols. True False AT Fundamentals quiz question number one

26 AT Fundamentals Quiz 2 Security is a team effort. True False AT Fundamentals quiz question number two 27 AT Fundamentals Quiz 3 Which of the following is not an Antiterrorism Level I theme? 1) Anticipate 2) Be Vigilant 3) Don't be a Target

4) Counter-surveillance 5) Report and Respond A T Fundamentals Quiz question number three 28 Surveillance Detection Introduction Personnel surveillance to determine: Residential security measures Modes of travel Routes and times of travel Typical behavior The target's security awareness Facility surveillance to determine: Terrorists conducted extensive surveillance against a USAF installation in Singapore

General security posture Security SOPs Information on force shift rotations Physical security weaknesses Reaction times to emergencies 29 Surveillance Detection Fundamentals Be vigilant for anything that might be a sign of surveillance: People loitering in the same general area without a recognizable legitimate reason People preoccupied with a specific area, to include taking pictures, making notes, or drawing sketches Terrorists performed extensive surveillance of the Terror Club in

Singapore Certain civilian vehicles that seem to appear repeatedly Utility and construction workers that do not appear to be performing a specific job Electronic audio and video devices in unusual places 30 Methods of Surveillance 1 Surveillance may be conducted over a long period of time and employ various methods: Stationary surveillance: a common method in which operatives observe from a fixed location. Moving surveillance: conducted on

foot or in vehicles. Terrorists performed extensive surveillance of the Terror Club in Singapore Vary your routes and routines! 31 Methods of Surveillance 2 Additional surveillance methods include: Technical surveillance: uses electronic means to record or gain access to security information. Casual questioning: used to elicit security information from approachable personnel. Surveillance and recording devices

used by terrorists Be aware of terrorist surveillance methods. 32 Surveillance Detection Situation 1 What do you do? 1) Wait until the vehicle leaves and then follow it 2) Continue to observe the vehicle to collect as much information as possible You see a suspicious vehicle in the housing area 3) Note the vehicles make, model and

license plate number 33 Surveillance Detection Situation 2 How do you respond? 1) Try to end the conversation politely and quickly 2) Ask the person why they want to know this information 3) Try to determine what they already know A person at the next table starts asking you information about your installation 34 Surveillance Detection Quiz 1

Surveillance can be performed through either stationary or mobile means. True False Surveillance detection quiz question number one 35 Surveillance Detection Quiz 2 Electronic audio and video devices are never used by terrorists for surveillance purposes. True False Surveillance detection quiz

question number two 36 Surveillance Detection Quiz 3 What is not a terrorist method of surveillance? 1) Stationary surveillance 2) Moving surveillance 3) Technical surveillance 4) Casual questioning Surveillance detection quiz question number three 5) Breaking and entering to steal valuables 37

Government Facility Security Introduction Attacks and plots against US Government facilities overseas include: Ramstein AB in Germany: 2007 US Embassy in Athens: 2007 Singapore Plot: 2001 US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania: 1998 Rhein-Main AB: 1985 Terrorists used a VBIED, grenades, and small arms to attack the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya in 1998 38 Government Facility Security Fundamentals The success of installation security

protocols and procedures depends upon everyone. Be aware of the current FPCON Understand your installation's security system Recognize non-malicious compromises in security Be a team player, cooperate with installation security procedures Recognize potentially malicious threats to security Report lapses in security or suspicious behavior Know incident response procedures 39 Recognizing Problems in Government Facility Security

Report problems you observe: Inattentive guard personnel Weapons, identification badges, or keys improperly handled Gaps in procedures that leave unauthorized persons unsupervised in sensitive areas Persons with an inappropriate curiosity in security measures Report suspicious behavior to the appropriate personnel Persons photographing sensitive areas Persons attempting to conceal items 40 Government Facility Incident Response

Incident response preparation: Be aware of emergency contact phone numbers and procedures Be familiar with the location and use of fire fighting equipment and first aid kits Be familiar with emergency response procedures Know and rehearse evacuation and accountability procedures for work places, your residence, and other frequently used facilities Be aware of normal patterns of activities and respond quickly to things that are unusual 41

Government Facility Security Situation 1 What can you do to be better prepared for an emergency? 1) Ask your peers who have been around for a while about threats in the area 2) Ask for an orientation on the security procedures of your new installation You arrive at a new location 3) Observe the procedures of the installation as you perform your daily duties 42 Government Facility Security Situation 2

What do you do? 1) Tell him he should return to his escort 2) Tell him he should get a "No Escort" badge 3) Ask him to take you to his escort or to accompany you to the security office You stop a man wearing an "Escort Required" security badge 43 Government Facility Security Quiz 1 Persons who have been given access to an installation can be counted on to be of no threat. True False

Government facility security quiz question number one 44 Government Facility Security Quiz 2 Installation security personnel are solely responsible to contact first responders in an emergency. True False Government facility security quiz question number two 45 Government Facility Security Quiz 3

Which of these does not pose a risk to security at a government facility? 1) Inattentive guard personnel 2) A visitor showing an unusual interest in details of security procedures 3) A person found in an inappropriate portion of the facility Government facility security quiz question number three 4) An "escort required" visitor found without an escort 5) A person expressing boredom with the US mission 46 Insider Threat Introduction

An Insider Threat uses access, wittingly or unwittingly, to harm national security through unauthorized disclosure, data modification, espionage, terrorism, or kinetic actions resulting in loss or degradation of resources or capabilities. Suicide belts and other IEDs are common weapons against US forces in deployed areas Attacks allegedly perpetrated by individuals thought to be loyal to the US include: 2010 leaking of over 500,000 documents concerning operations in Iraq and Afghanistan November 2009 Active Shooter attack at Fort Hood March 2003 Active Shooter attack at Camp Pennsylvania in Iraq

September 2001 anthrax attacks against Government facilities; perpetrator possibly associated with USG Insider Threat Introduction Motivations for the insider threat vary by incident, but common motivations include: Suicide belts and other IEDs are common weapons against US forces in deployed areas Desire to further a political or religious agenda

Ability to exert power to influence events Perceived injustices against oneself or a minority group The need for excitement The belief that one knows better what US foreign policy should be The desire to commit suicide

Individual awareness and active leadership are key defenses to the Insider threat Types of Insider Threats There are at least four types of Insider Threats as they relate to antiterrorism. Terrorism Intended to Coerce or Intimidate: Persons who plot and execute attacks to further the agenda of an extreme ideology. Mental Instability: Persons that have a mental illness that impairs their judgment and causes them to initiate activities they may not otherwise perform. In 2010, the National Museum of the Marine Corps was targeted by a drive by shooter Espionage: The divulgence of classified or sensitive information that may result in attacks or

provide information on vulnerabilities that facilitate an attack. Motivations may be financial or ideological. Negligence: Persons that disregard standard security measures that potentially allow the collection of vulnerability-related information or information that could precipitate an attack. Recognizing Political / Religious Extremism Recognition of an Insider Threat can prevent an incident. Pre-attack indicators include: Anti-American statements asserting that US policy illegitimate Aggression or threats toward coworkers Presence of unauthorized weapons Attempts to communicate with US enemies or associations with known extremist groups Distribution of propaganda materials in support of an extremist position Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi

detonated a suicide bomb at Camp Chapman killing seven CIA operatives Allegations of US persecution against a minority group or religion Repeated violation of policies If you perceive an immediate violent threat, alert security personnel or law enforcement personnel immediately. Recognizing Mental Instability Indicators of a potentially mentally unstable person often include: Abnormal mood swings, depression, withdrawn behavior, decrease in hygiene, paranoia Flashbacks to prior traumatic events Abuse of alcohol or drugs Repeated violation of policies

Talk of domestic or financial problems Abuse of alcohol and drugs is a possible indicator of the insider threat Talk of suicide If you witness behavior that might indicate an unstable person, alert your supervisor or appropriate medical personnel immediately. Internal Threat Situation 1 What would you do to counter the Insider Threat? 1) Wait for guidance to be issued from your supervisor or local security personnel 2) Learn to recognize indicators that might

represent an Insider Threat 3) Carefully monitor the activities of your fellow colleagues Knowing indicators of the Insider Threat can help recognize a threatening situation Internal Threat Situation 2 How do you respond if a potentially mentally unstable person is identified? 1) Try to find them professional help 2) Encourage them to get help from a medical professional 3) Report the behavior you have witnessed to a supervisor Abuse of prescription drugs may indicate an Insider Threat Internal Threat Quiz 1

Knowing indicators of an unstable person can allow you to identify a potential Insider Threat before an incident? True False Insider Threat quiz question number one Internal Threat Quiz 2 From an antiterrorism perspective, espionage and security negligence are considered Insider Threats? True False Insider Threat quiz question number two

Internal Threat Quiz 3 Which of the following is not an early indicator of a potential Insider Threat: 1. Aggression or threat towards co-workers 2. Presence of unauthorized weapons 3. Abnormal mood swings, depression, and suicidal remarks 4. A reasonable disagreement with a US Government policy Insider Threat quiz question number three 5. Anti-American statements asserting that US policy and authority is illegitimate Active Shooter Introduction An Active Shooter incident can occur at

any time and at almost any location: In 2002, Chechen rebels attacked and held hostage occupants of the Dubrovka Theatre in Moscow, Russia March 2011 shooting of Air Force personnel at Frankfurt Airport in Germany November 2009 shooting at the Soldier Readiness Center in Fort Hood, Texas June 2009 shooting at Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C. May 2009 shooting of soldiers outside a military recruitment center in Arkansas November 2008 attacks against hotels,

restaurants, and a train station in Mumbai, India It is unlikely you will be involved in an Active Shooter incident, but you should be prepared for the possibility. Active Shooter Fundamentals Responses to an Active Shooter include: Evacuate, shelter in place, take action against the active shooter If you are in an exposed position, try to seek cover in a place that can be sealed off or barricaded Adapt your response to the weapons used: Ricocheting bullets tend to hug the

floor; crouching on the floor may reduce exposure Grenade shrapnel rises from the detonation; lying on the floor reduces exposure An active shooter situation may be over within 15 minutes, before law enforcement arrives. Responding to an Active Shooter Evacuate: If possible. Be sure to: Have a route and plan in mind Evacuate regardless of whether others follow Leave your belongings behind In an active shooter situation, evacuate if possible

Help others escape, if possible Prevent others from entering the area Follow instructions of police officers Do not move wounded people Call 911 when you are safe Evacuations is not always possible. Responding to an Active Shooter 2 Shelter in Place: Be out of the shooter's view Not trap you Have locks on the door Have furniture to blockade the door Silence your cell phone, hide behind large items, remain quiet and calm If necessary, you should be prepared to shelter in place

Take action against the active shooter: Act aggressively, yell Throw items and improvise weapons Taking action against the shooter may be risky, but it may be your best chance for survival. Arrival of First Responders Cooperate with first responders and dont be a distraction When first responders arrive, support their efforts and do not be a distraction: Remain calm and follow instructions Put down any items in your hands Raise hands and spread fingers Evacuate in the direction first responders are entering

Provide the following information: Location / number / description of active shooter(s) Type of weapons held by the shooter(s) It is normal to feel helpless; however, you can support first responder efforts. Active Shooter Situation 1 What should you consider as part of your first response to the active shooter threat? 1) Identify items that can be used to attack the active shooter 2) Decide if evacuation is possible 3) Do what everybody else does You consider the Active Shooter Threat

Active Shooter Situation 2 What do you do if there is an active shooter threat involving firearms and you have no opportunity to evacuate? 1) Diver for cover and run for the exit at the first opportunity 2) Dive behind something solid and crouch to the floor You consider the Active Shooter Threat 3) Dive behind something solid and lie flat on the floor Active Shooter Quiz Question 1 In an Active Shooter incident involving firearms you should immediately lay on the ground? True

False Active Shooter Quiz Question 1 Active Shooter Quiz Question 2 Active resistance should be the immediate response to an active shooter incident True False Active Shooter Quiz Question 2 Active Shooter Quiz Question 3 Which of the following is not a recommended response to an Active Shooter incident: 1. Look for possible escape routes from

the area 2. Look for a place to hide or an area that can be barricaded 3. Find something solid to dive behind Active Shooter Quiz Question 3 4. Provide instructions to arriving emergency response personnel 5. If necessary, actively resist the perpetrator Residential Security Introduction In selecting a new residence, some security considerations include: Location in a low crime area Access to US facilities and host nation emergency services Security measures such as visitor control

Strong crime prevention measures Consider the local threat when selecting your home 67 Residential Security Physical Security Consider these physical security measures: Solid doors, quality locks, deadbolts, slide locks, and reinforcing plates Ensure sliding doors cannot be lifted out and lay a rod in the track Keep valuables out of sight Do not hide spare keys outside There are many things you can do to enhance your home's security Use an alarm system

Improve exterior lighting Put gravel outside windows 68 Residential Security Practices Simple home security measures can reduce your vulnerability Good habits are essential for good security. Ways to improve your security and confidence include: Carefully key control Permit access to known personnel Verify utility company employees Be wary of strangers showing interest Check with the US Embassy or US Command before hiring workers Be on good relations with your

neighbors and look out for each other Do not assume telephone conversations are secure 69 Social Media Through social media, users can inadvertently provide information on: A current operational mission A facilitys mission / infrastructure Your schedule and routines

Family / personal information Consider the following: Information provided over the internet may put you at risk Limit profile information / friending Use high profile security settings

Never post OPSEC sensitive data Monitor internet usage of family members Report suspicious activity Online information can be used to plan and execute an attack against yourself, your family, or your unit. 70 Residential Preparation for Emergencies Consider what your family should do in case of an emergency situation: A utility worker says he needs to

check a gas line in your house Your children come home from school and unexpectedly no one is there to care for them Someone breaks into your home and demands money and valuables Emergency preparedness kits Discuss contingencies so your family is ready for the unexpected. 71 Residential Security Situation 1 What else do you consider for better security? 1) A remote location with no through traffic 2) Access to US facilities and host

nation emergency services You must chose a new location to live 3) A location near hotels and other commercial services 72 Residential Security Situation 2 What can you do to improve the physical security of your new residence? 1) To ensure family members can get in if lose their key, hide a key near the front porch You are moving into your new home

2) Ask your neighbors if there are crime problems in the neighborhood; if not, you do not need to do anything special 3) Make sure windows lock securely and put a dowel or rod in sliding door tracks to keep them from being forced open 73 Residential Security Situation 3 What do you do? 1) Be on good relations with your neighbors so you can look out for each other 2) Keep a low profile and do not initiate contact with neighbors

because you need to respect local culture You are discussing getting to know your neighbors 3) Feel free to tell your neighbors about your sponsor's work for DOD as a way to boost mutual trust 74 Residential Security Quiz 1 Home security can be improved with self-help measures like changing locks, securing windows, and improving outdoor lighting. True False

Residential security quiz question one 75 Residential Security Quiz 2 Internet acquaintances can pose a security threat and should be carefully monitored. True False Residential security quiz question two 76 Residential Security Quiz 3

What is not a physical security consideration for your home? 1) Changing locks to ensure key control 2) Contacting the US Embassy or US Command before hiring a maid Residential security quiz question three 3) Hiding a key outside to ensure family members can get in if they lose their keys 4) Monitoring internet acquaintances for all family members 5) Having good relations with neighbor and look out for each other 77 Off-Duty Security Introduction

Civilian. sites may be more appealing targets than DOD installations. Examples are: Places of worship and religious events Common tourist attractions International hotels Public sites with large crowds, may be targeted by terrorists Restaurants and coffee shops Night clubs Public transportation hubs Sporting events 78 Off-Duty Fundamentals

Enhance your personal security by: Travelling in a small group Not drawing attention to yourself Carrying emergency phone numbers Letting someone know your plans Going out on holidays or anniversaries of significant events may temporarily increase the local threat. Terrorists targeted tourists at the Temple of Hatshepsut in Deir el Bahri, Egypt killing 62 79 Public Transportation If public transportation is used: Select major hubs Do not wait in large groups Change times and routes

On a bus or train, only take food or drink from official transit personnel In a train sleeper car, lock the door A backpack IED exploded on the Madrid subway system in 2004 If taxis are used, consider these: Look for legitimate taxi company Verify the photo on the license Vary taxi companies used Select your own taxi 80 During Your Activity Reduce your risk: Identify exit routes to be used Identify a location to meet if separated Watch for suspicious behavior in

others Notice suspicious objects Four bombers attack the London subway system July 2005 81 Off-Duty Situation 1 What type of location should you visit? 1) Common tourist attractions 2) Places where Americans and other Westerners congregate since they will probably have better security 3) Places where Americans and other Westerners do not congregate You and your friends want to see a little of the local area

82 Off-Duty Situation 2 Where do you sit? 1) Outside seating on the sidewalk 2) The seating area near the entrance 3) The indoor seating area away from the street You have selected a local restaurant 83 Off-Duty Situation 3 What would you do for an attack using firearms? 1) Dive for cover and run for exit at

the first possible opportunity 2) Dive behind something solid and crouch but do not lie flat on the floor You discuss how to respond to an active shooter 3) Dive behind something solid and lay flat on the floor 84 Off-Duty Quiz 1 Your unit or the US Embassy Regional Security Officer may provide a list of places you can and cannot visit. True False

Off-Duty quiz question number one 85 Off-Duty Quiz 2 It is best to know a little bit about your area so you can recognize unusual activity and behavior. True False Off-Duty quiz question number two 86 Off-Duty Quiz 3

What is not a good selection for where to go during off-duty activities? 1) A place approved by your unit and US Embassy Regional Security Officer 2) A place of religious association that has caused local controversy Off-Duty quiz question number three 3) A place not commonly associated with US Service Members 4) Areas away from local political events 5) A reputable establishment 87 Air Travel Introduction Examples and tactics since 2001:

Midair explosion December 2001 shoebomb plot Surface to air attack 2002 shoulder-fired missile attack on a civilian aircraft in Mombasa, Kenya Small arms attack 2002 attack against El Al ticket counter in LA VBIED 2007 attack against the Glasgow International Airport The Flight 93 Memorial Attack against airport infrastructure 2007 plot against JFK airport Skyjacking several incidents in Africa and the eastern Mediterranean 88 Reducing Your Exposure

Keep a low profile by: Travelling with a tourist passport Not wearing clothing with DOD symbols or slogans Do not include rank or organization on luggage tags Using standard civilian luggage instead of military duffle bags Conceal items that show your DOD or Government affiliation Place any papers with DOD logos or other official documents in a sealed envelope 89 Security at the Airport

While at the airport terminal, be vigilant for: Vehicles left unattended at the curbside check-in areas Individuals that appear nervous Any activity that is out of place in an airport environment Terrorists ram a terminal building at Glasgow International Airport Report suspicious activity to airport authorities immediately. 90 Responding to a Skyjacking If your aircraft is skyjacked, attempt to

understand the skyjackers' intent: Are pilots left in control of the aircraft? This may indicate a desire to land the plane safely Have passengers or crew been physically abused? This may indicate their mindset Threats to aircraft come in many forms, and each terrorist may have a different motivation Are passengers singled out by nationality or religion? This may indicate something about their goal 91 Air Travel Situation 1 What do you do?

1) Look in the windows to see if there is anything suspicious in the floorboards or seat 2) Alert the nearest airport employee or security officer 3) Go into the terminal and try to locate the driver You notice an unattended SUV at the curb 92 Air Travel Situation 2 What do you do? 1) Politely say no and note the person's description and any other suspicious behavior 2) Ask him to open his bag and show you the contents if it looks OK,

check it in under your name While in line, someone asks you to check a bag for him 3) Ask him what is in the bag if it sounds OK, check it in your name 93 Air Travel Quiz 1 In the event of a skyjacking, you should immediately attempt to subdue the skyjackers. True False Air travel quiz question number one

94 Air Travel Quiz 2 The ticketing area is more secure than the area beyond the security check point. True False Air travel quiz question number two 95 Air Travel Quiz 3 Since 9/11, which of the following attack methods has not been attempted against an airport or airline?

1) Small-arms attack 2) VBIED 3) Explosive carried onboard by passenger Air travel quiz question number three 4) Chemical or biological attack 5) Skyjacking for purpose of taking hostages 96 Ground Travel Introduction For many decades, DOD personnel have had to protect themselves against threats while traveling in vehicles. Terrorist tactics include: ambushes

small arms fire occasional roadside explosives Terrorists assassinated LCDR Shaufelberger and Capt Tsantes, both in their vehicles 97 Ground Travel Introduction Security and safety measures: Limit attention to yourself. Drive a vehicle that is common in the area Ensure your vehicle is well maintained. Tires properly inflated and the gas tank at least half full Vary routes. Do not be a predictable target A car burning after a terrorist attack in Greece

Report suspicious behavior. If you witness suspicious behavior or possible threats, alert l authorities immediately 98 Inspecting Your Vehicle Vehicle inspections consists of: Visual exterior inspection: Look for any evidence of tampering Visual interior inspection: Look through the windows for anything unusual Inspect all compartments of your vehicle regularly

Complete interior inspection: Look anywhere something may be hidden If you believe your vehicle has been tampered with or you see something suspicious, report it to the proper authorities immediately. 99 Ground Travel Situation 1 What should be a concern? 1) The routes used by most DOD personnel in the area 2) Routes near police stations, hospitals, and other emergency services 3) The roads kept in the best condition

You must select a driving route 100 Ground Travel Situation 2 What should you do? 1) Casually make a few lane changes and casual turns to see if the other car follows 2) Pull over to the side of the road to see if the car passes you 3) Stop your car, if the other car stops, confront the driver You believe you are being followed 101 Ground Travel Situation 3

What do you do? 1) Speed up and try to out run it 2) Continue on until you reach a place of safety 3) Try to pass another car to put it between you and the tailing car The vehicle that has been tailing you reappears and is closing in 102 Ground Travel Quiz 1 Roadblocks, detours, and car accidents may represent a threat. True False

Ground travel quiz question number one 103 Ground Travel Quiz 2 Varying your travel routes can help disrupt surveillance activities? True False Ground travel quiz question number two 104 Ground Travel Quiz 3 In response to a ground travel threat,

which of the following is not a good standard personal protection measure? Ground travel quiz question number three 1) Look for signs of unusual activity 2) Make a mental note of information that can be useful to security personnel 3) Switch from using main roads to isolated streets and areas

4) Go to a secure location such as a military installation or police station immediately 5) Be prepared to take evasive action if other responses fail 105 Hotel Security Introduction Hotel security is a significant concern for the US government and host nation governments. Hotels are attractive targets:

They have lighter security than Government installations They attract guests who are potential targets Paradise Hotel in Mombasa, Kenya following a 2002 VBIED attack Terrorists may perceive certain hotels as symbols of American influence 106 Selecting a Hotel When selecting a hotel, consider the following: Good stand-off from the street Location in a low-crime area Solid perimeter

Access control for both persons and vehicles Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai, India after terrorists set fires Protection by hotel security personnel Location near major roads Facilities inside the hotel Electronic key card security 107 Selecting Your Hotel Room If you have the choice, consider the following room preferences: 3rd to 5th floors 1st and 2nd floors are easily accessible from the outside, above the 5th floor is

difficult to reach by emergency services A room away from the street can reduce your exposure to a VBIED Hotel rooms should be selected with security in mind Access to fire escapes and emergency evacuation routes 108 Inspecting Your Hotel Room Consider these thing when inspecting your room: Functioning locks on doors and windows Risk of access through outside windows or a balcony

Location of exits and escape routes Solid doors to help resist break-ins Night latches are common in hotel rooms and should be used Peephole to view visitors Operational telephone Be sure you can call the front desk and directly to the US Embassy or local military installation. 109 Hotel Security Situation 1 What should you ask for? 1) A hotel that caters to visiting Westerners and local elites 2) A hotel in a busy part of the city often visited by tourists 3) A hotel with good standoff from the

street You are looking for a hotel that is safe and secure 110 Hotel Security Situation 2 What should you request? 1) A room with a patio balcony 2) A room with metal bars on the windows 3) A room close to emergency exits You are asked for your room preference 111 Hotel Security Situation 3

What do you do? 1) Report the suspicious activity to US military security personnel 2) Nothing at the moment, wait and see if he continues his activity 3) Move to a place in the lobby where you can get a better look at what the man is doing You see a suspicious person taking photos of the hotel with his cell phone 112 Hotel Security Quiz 1 Vehicle and pedestrian access control is a key aspect of hotel security. True False

Hotel security quiz question number one 113 Hotel Security Quiz 2 Choosing your room may be just as important as choosing your hotel. True False Hotel security quiz question number two 114 Hotel Security Quiz 3

What is not a physical security feature you should check when inspecting your hotel room? 1) Standoff from the street 2) Price 3) Location within the city Hotel security quiz question number three 4) Presence of hotel security or host nation military personnel 5) A solid physical perimeter 115 Hostage Survival Introduction The threat of kidnapping is a concern for DOD-affiliated personnel.

Hostages may be taken to obtain political concessions, ransom, or publicity. Many hostage situations are resolved through negotiation or rescue. In some extreme cases, hostages are killed by their captors. Hostages are taken for a variety of reasons and captivity may last for a few hours or for years To prepare for this possibility, review "Isolated Personnel Guidance," an annex to CJCS Guide 5260. 116 Initial Response to Hostage Incident The initial moments of a hostage taking situation are the most chaotic. If taken

hostage, focus on defusing the situation: Control your fear and maintain your dignity Follow instructions of your captors Avoid sudden movements that your captors may view as hostile Peru, 1996, MRTA took hundreds hostage at the Japanese Ambassador's residence The initial moments and hours of a hostage situation can be the most dangerous. Your decisions can increase your chance for survival. 117 Time in Captivity If questioned, consider the following:

Respond to your captors with respect Try not to display emotion or ego Avoid sensitive military matters Do not lie, but do not volunteer information Be prepared for a long captivity Thomas Hamill, was held captive

in this hut Iraq for 23 days Keep active and maintain a daily routine Engage guards in conversation Eat the food that is provided Find ways to exercise

Get enough sleep 118 Stockholm Syndrome factors in the development of the Stockholm Syndrome: Credible threat to survival Perceived small kindness from the captor Isolation from perspectives other than the captor's "Stockholm Syndrome" occurs when the hostages befriend their captors Hostages begin to see the world from the captor's perspective. Can reduce the ability to see opportunities to escape.

If you become a hostage, remain true to your core values. 119 Hostage Resolution In the event of a rescue attempt, be sure to: Immediately drop to the floor Do not make any sudden moves Do not attempt to assist rescue personnel Cooperate with rescue personnel Terry Anderson's release after seven years of captivity in Lebanon 120 Hostage Survival Situation 1

How do you respond? 1) Do not resist and slowly crouch to the floor 2) Attempt to seize a gun from one of the assailants if one is close to you 3) Dive behind a solid piece of furniture Armed men burst into the room and shout for everyone to get on the floor and be quiet 121 Hostage Survival Situation 2 How do you respond? 1) Get down on the floor and remain still, and quietly encourage others to remain calm 2) Begin shouting repeatedly, "I am a

hostage." 3) Dash across the room where there is better cover A rescue attempt is made 122 Hostage Survival Quiz 1 A good tactic during interrogations is to refuse to answer any questions. True False Hostage survival quiz question number one 123 Hostage Survival Quiz 2

While in captivity it is important to stay in good physical condition and develop a daily routine. True False Hostage survival quiz question number two 124 Hostage Survival Quiz 3 What should you not do during a hostage rescue attempt? 1) Remain still and low to the ground 2) Encourage others around you to remain calm 3) Try to assist hostage rescue team

Hostage survival quiz question number three 4) Follow instructions of hostage rescue team 5) Expect to be handcuffed and detained by hostage rescue team 125 CBRNE Introduction The chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) threat is real. While not common, chemical and biological attacks have occurred. In 1995, terrorists attacked the Tokyo subway using Sarin nerve gas

First responders during the 2001 anthrax attacks In 2001, anthrax-laden letters were mailed to targeted individuals and places in the United States Terrorist organizations are seeking new attack methods. 126 Responding to CBRNE Attacks The exact nature of a CBRNE attack may be hard to determine. Regardless of the nature, you can protect yourself by: Covering as much of your body as you can, especially your nose and mouth Washing any exposed part of your

body with soap and water Responders in protective gear at the Hart Senate Office Building for the 2001 anthrax attacks Seeking medical attention as soon as possible Following instructions of local authorities and first responders 127 Responding to IEDs IEDs can be disguised as everyday objects. Be alert for: Suspicious objects and packaging: July 2005 London IED attacks

Unattended items that could conceal a bomb Items with unusual batteries, wires, cables, and strings Suspicious behavior: Persons dressed in unseasonably warm clothing or behaving nervously Persons leaving a suspicious object prior to leaving an area 128 CBRNE Situation 1 What do you do? 1) Warn other passengers of the potential threat and exit the train at the next stop 2) Exit the train at the next stop and alert subway personnel

3) Try to retrieve the bag and exit the train at the next stop On the subway, a man takes a bag out of his backpack and places on the floor between his feet 129 CBRNE Situation 2 What do you do? 1) Immediately cover your nose and mouth and plan to exit the train at the next stop 2) Immediately cover your nose and mouth and pull the train's emergency stop handle Liquid is flowing from the bag. People are beginning to cough & your eyes are watering

3) Immediately cover your nose and mouth and try to contain the liquid as best you can 130 CBRNE Situation 3 What do you do? 1) Try to track down the suspicious man and identify him to authorities 2) Evacuate the station in an orderly manner and leave the area immediately You exit the train 3) Evacuate the station in an orderly manner, leave the immediate are but

remain in the general area to provide a statement to authorities 131 CBRNE Quiz 1 Early symptoms of a biological attack may appear the same as common illnesses. True False CBRNE quiz question number one 132 CBRNE Quiz 2 IEDs may come in many forms and may be camouflaged to blend in to the

surrounding environment. True False CBRNE quiz question number two 133 CBRNE Quiz 3 In response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear attack, which of the following is not a good standard personal protection measure? 1) Cover as much of your body as you can, especially your nose and mouth 2) Keep antibiotics on hand for emergency situations CBRNE quiz question number

three 3) Wash any exposed part of your body with soap and water 4) Seek medical attention as soon as possible 5) Follow instructions of local authorities and first responders 134 Section 3: Historical Examples 135 Historical Examples Included in this Briefing AT Topic Historical Example

Year Location(s) Attack Method(s) Surveillance Detection Singapore Plot 2001 Singapore IED Government Facility Nairobi Embassy

1998 Nairobi, Kenya VBIED (Suicide Bombing) Insider Threat Camp Pennsylvania 2003 Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait Small Arms, Grenades Active Shooter

Norway Massacre 2011 Utoya, Norway Small Arms Fire Residential Security General Dozier 1981 Verona, Italy Kidnapping Off-Duty Security

Edward Pimental 1985 Rein-Main, Germany Vehicle-Borne IED Air Travel Security United Flight 93 2001 Shanksville, PA Skyjacking of Passenger Jetliner

Ground Travel Security Albert Schaufelberger 1983 El Salvador Small Arms Fire Hotel Security Mumbai Terrorist Attacks 2008 Mumbai, India Assault Weapons / IEDs

Hostage Survival General Dozier 1981 Verona, Italy Kidnapping CBRNE US Anthrax Attacks 2001 NY, DC, FL Biological Weapon

136 Singapore Plot Date: September 2001 Killed: 0 Wounded: 0 Three terrorist cells uncovered in Singapore intent on attacking Western interests throughout the island Terrorist cells conducted extensive surveillance of US military facilities and Western diplomatic missions

Terrorists in the process of acquiring explosives at the time the plot was uncovered Nairobi Embassy Bombing Date: 7 August 1998 Killed: 259 Wounded: 5,000 Terrorists used vehicle born explosives to attack the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya The sound of gunfire exchanged between guards and terrorists

brought hundreds to their windows to view incident When vehicles exploded, persons at the windows were showered with flying glass and debris Camp Pennsylvania Date: 23 March 2003 Killed: 2 Wounded: 14 US Army Sergeant Hasan Karim Akbar killed two fellow Service Members at Camp Pennsylvania,

Kuwait Akbar cut power to the generator that powered installation lights Proceeded to throw grenades and shoot weapon stolen from the ammunition storage area Akbar claimed to be persecuted for his religious beliefs, was upset about recent reprimand, and disagreed with US entry into Iraq 139 Norway Massacre (Utoya)

Date: 22 June 2011 Killed: 77 Wounded: 161 Detonated a VBIED in Oslo to distract law enforcement Landed on the island of Utoya disguised as a police officer Used disguise to assemble children into a group Responses of children included fleeing, sheltering in place, and active resistance Children used text messaging to communicate during the crisis 140 General Dozier

Italian Red Brigade kidnapped US Army BG James Dozier Terrorists entered Doziers residence posing as plumbers Terrorists performed extensive surveillance Dozier was rescued by Italian police 42 days later Date: 17 December 1981 Killed: 0 Wounded: 0 141

Edward Pimental Date: 7 August 1985 Killed: 3 Wounded: 19 US Service Member killed by terrorists in order to steal his base ID card Next day, terrorists detonated large vehicle bomb outside the headquarters building at RheinMain Air Base Attack demonstrates the use of members of the opposite sex to acquire access to Service Members and their belongings

United Flight 93 Date: 11 September 2001 Killed: 39 Wounded: 0 Terrorists skyjacked United Flight 93 with the intent of using it as a guided missile After learning of other attacks against the World Trade Center and Pentagon passengers decided to retake the plane over an isolated area Actions of the crew and passengers

may have saved countless additional lives 143 Albert Schaufelberger Date: 25 May 1983 Killed: 1 Wounded: 0 LCDR Albert Schaufelberger was assassinated in El Salvador while waiting in his vehicle Schaufelberger developed a routine that made estimating his place and

location easy Schaufelberger had removed bullet proof glass from the drivers side window to compensate for poor air conditioning Mumbai Terrorist Attacks Terrorists attacked multiple targets in Mumbai, India: Date: 26 November 2008 Killed: 165 Wounded: Over 300 The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus a major transportation hub in the city Leopold Caf a popular restraunt with tourists and affluent Indians Taj Mahal Hotel a hotel popular

with foreigner tourists, diplomats, and affluent Indians Oberoi-Trident Hotel a hotel popular with foreigner tourists, diplomats, and affluent Indians Narimen House a hostel used by jewish tourists Mumbai has a significant history of terrorist attacks 145 General Dozier (Hostage Survival)

Date: 1981 Killed: 0 Wounded: 0 Italian Red Brigade terrorists kidnapped US Army Brigadier General James Dozier from his residence in Verona, Italy Terrorists isolated Dozier and attempted to disorient him Dozier established a daily routine, stayed composed, and discussed non-political topics with his captors Dozier was rescued by Italian authorities 42 days later 146 US Anthrax Attacks

Letters containing anthrax mailed to media outlets and US Senators Attack demonstrates the capability and willingness to conduct attacks using chemical / biological weapons Some victims were infected by cross-contamination Indications of a biological attack may not be immediately apparent Date: September 2001 Killed: 5 Wounded: 17 147

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