Chapter 3: Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 2007
Chapter 3: Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -1 Learning Objectives Increase proficiency in analytic problem solving Recognize personal conceptual blocks Enhance creativity by
overcoming conceptual blocks Foster innovation among others 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -2 A Model of Problem Solving Step 1: Define the Problem
2007 by Prentice Hall Differentiate fact from opinion Specify underlying causes Tap everyone involved for information State the problem explicitly Identify what standard is violated Determine whose problem it is Avoid stating the problem as a disguised solution
3 -3 A Model of Problem Solving Step 2: Generate Alternative Solutions 2007 by Prentice Hall
Postpone evaluating alternatives Be sure all involved individuals generate alternatives Specify alternatives that are consistent with goals Specify both short- and long-term solutions Build on others ideas Specify alternatives that solve the problem 3 -4 A Model of Problem Solving Step 3: Evaluate and Select an
Alternative 2007 by Prentice Hall Evaluate relative to an optimal standard Evaluate systematically Evaluate relative to goals Evaluate main effects and side effects State the selected alternative explicitly
3 -5 A Model of Problem Solving Step 4: Implement and Follow Up on the Solution 2007 by Prentice Hall
Implement at proper time and in the right sequence Provide opportunities for feedback Engender acceptance Establish ongoing monitoring system Evaluate based on problem solution 3 -6 Constraints on the Analytical Problem-Solving Model Defining the problems Lack of consensus on the
problem Acceptance of problem definition Symptoms are often confused with the real problem Confusing information 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -7 Constraints on the Analytical Problem-Solving Model Generating Alternatives Alternatives are evaluated as
they are proposed Few possible alternatives are usually known The first acceptable solution is usually accepted Alternatives are based on what was successful in the past 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -8 Constraints on the Analytical Problem-Solving Model Evaluating and Select an Alternative
2007 by Prentice Hall Information on alternatives is limited Search for information occurs close to home The type of information is constrained by other factors Gathering information is costly
Preferences for the best alternatives are not always known 3 -9 Constraints on the Analytical Problem-Solving Model Implementation and Follow up
2007 by Prentice Hall Acceptance is not always forthcoming Resistance to change Uncertainty about what part of solution to monitor Political and organizational processes must be managed It may take a long time to implement a solution 3 -10 Impediments to Creative
Problem Solving Most people assume creativity is one dimensional Almost everyone has created blocks that inhibit our creativity 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -11 Four Types of Creativity Insert Figure 3.1 2007 by Prentice Hall
3 -12 Key Dimensions of the Four Types Insert Figure 3.2 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -13 Examples for Four Types 2007 by Prentice Hall
3 -14 Conceptual Blocks Mental obstacles that constrain the way problems are defined. 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -15 Two Examples 1. Percy Spencers Magnetron lead to the invention of the
microwave 2. Spence Silvers Glue lead to the every popular Post-It Notes 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -16 Conceptual Blocks 1. 2. 3. 4.
2007 by Prentice Hall Constancy Commitment Compression Complacency 3 -17 deBonos Ways of Thinking Vertical Thinking
Continuity Chooses Stability Searches for what is right Analytic Where the idea came from Develops an idea 2007 by Prentice Hall
Lateral Thinking Discontinuity Changes Instability Searches for what is different Provocative Where the idea is
going Discovers the idea 3 -18 Multiple Thinking Languages Words Symbols Sensory (i.e. smell) Feelings and emotions Visual imagery 2007 by Prentice Hall
3 -19 Multiple Thinking Languages The more languages available to problem solvers, the more creative the solution will be. 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -20 Perceptual Stereotyping
When individuals define present problems in terms of problems that they have faced in the past. 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -21 Ignoring Commonalities Creativity is blocked when individuals fail to find the common thread that exist between dissimilar problems.
2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -22 Name That Ship! Insert figure 3.6 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -23 Examples of Compression Artificial Constraints
Insert figure 3.7 Separating Figure From Ground 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -24 Examples of Complacency Noninquisitiveness: Unwillingness to ask questions Bias against thinking:
Proclivity to avoid doing mental work 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -25 Insert Table 3.4 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -26 Stages in Creative Thought
Preparation Incubation Illumination Verification 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -27 Ways to Improve Problem Definition Make the strange familiar and the familiar strange Synectics Elaborate the definition
Reverse the definition 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -28 Ways to Generate More Alternatives 1. Defer judgment Brainstorming 2. Expand current alternatives 3. Combine unrelated attributes 2007 by Prentice Hall
3 -29 Rules of Brainstorming 1. No evaluation of ideas is permitted 2. Wild ideas are encouraged 3. Quantity before quality 4. Build on ideas of others 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -30 Morphological Synthesis
1. The problem is written down 2. Attributes of the problem are listed 3. Alternatives to each attribute are listed 4. Different alternatives from the attributes are combined 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -31 Relational Algorithm Applying connecting words that force a relationship between two
elements in a problem. 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -32 Hints to Facilitate Creative Problem Solving Give yourself relaxation time
Find a place where you can think Talk to other people about ideas Ask other people for their suggestions about your problems Read a lot Protect yourself from idea-killers 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -33 A Model of Analytic and Creative Problem Solving Insert figure 3.10
2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -34 Three Principles for Fostering Creativity 1. Pull people apart; put people together 2. Monitor and prod 3. Reward multiple roles 2007 by Prentice Hall
3 -35 Enabling Creativity in Others 2007 by Prentice Hall 3 -36
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