Ethnic variation in the contribution of Cardiorespiratory fitness
Ethnic variation in the contribution of Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength to diabetes: crossectional study of 68,116 UK Biobank participants Uduakobong Ntuk, Institute of Health and Wellbeing ,University of Glasgow International Conference on Epidemiology & Public Health Valencia Spain, 2015 Outline Background Study Aims Methods Result Discussion Strengths and Limitations Conclusion Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem Diabetes prevalence Black (2x White European) South Asian (4x White European) Background (contd) Low cardiorespiratory fitness involved in the progression from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (T2D);
predictors of cardiovascular events and premature mortality in T2D individuals. Muscular strength is a predictor of all-cause mortality, as well as disability. No epidemiological studies on ethnic variation and diabetes prevalence Rantanen T, et al; Sayer AA, et al; Ghouri N, et al; Wander PL, et al Study Aims To determine the associations of (a) cardiorespiratory fitness (b) muscular strength on diabetes risk in White European, Black and South Asian. To determine the extent to which ethnic differences in fitness and muscle strength might account for observed differences in diabetes prevalence Whether the strength of these relationships similar across ethnic groups Methods Data Source UK Biobank Large sample size data >500,000 Aged between 40 and 70 years Representative of the UK population in terms of age-band, sex and ethnic structure Self-identified as White, South Asian or black background living in the UK Data Analysis Multivariate logistic regression model Adjusting for : Age, Sex ,Deprivation quintile , Smoking , Alcohol consumption, BMI and
Percentage body fat Results Table 1.Characteristics of study participants by ethnic group and sex Men Age(years) BMI (kg/m2) Hand grip strength (kg/kg body weight) CRF (METS) Women White N=28,402 Black N=904 South Asian N=1,066 White N=35,367 Black N=1,293 South Asian N=1,086 59 (51-64) 51 (45-59) 54 (45-61) 58 (51-63)
9.20 (7.65-10.73) 7.65 (6.09-9.31) 6.49 (4.75-7.98) 6.82 (5.31-8.21) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) Diabetes 1,604 (5.64) 134 (14.77) 189 (17.68) 1,122 (3.17) 108 (8.34) 126 (11.60) Impact of fitness & strength on risk of diabetes (Men) Diabetes odds ratio 8 White men
6 4 2 1.94 1.32 1.00 1.76 1.24 1.00 1.64 1.06 st re ng th Low fitness Moderate fitness High fitness South Asian men Lo w st re ng th M od er at e st re ng th
0 H ig h 2.41 6.51 8 5.86 7 3.90 6 5 4 3 2.70 2.49 3.76 5.02 4.78 3.65 1.88 2 1 0 Low fitness Moderate fitness High fitness Diabetes odds ratio
Diabetes odds ratio 8 6.29 7 Black men 6.72 3.49 4.04 3.43 3.94 3.02 6 5 4 4.54 3 2 1 0 h ig H st t ng e r h e at
r e od M n re st H h gt w Lo ng re t s th h ig fi s es n t Impact of fitness & strength on risk of diabetes (Women) Diabetes odds ratio 8 White women 1.36 2.10 1.31 1.09
1.68 1.04 1.00 1.03 1.33 6 4 2 0 H h ig st ng re th te ra e od M st ng re H th w Lo st ng re
South Asian women 4.05 3.31 1.27 1.14 4 2 2.96 2.62 2.11 0 H h ig st ng re th e at r e od M ng re t s H th w
Lo st ng re th h ig fit ss ne 5.28 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Diabetes odds ratio Diabetes odds ratio 3.52 6 s es th Black women 5.88 8
h ig n fit H h ig 3.90 3.54 2.53 st ng re th te ra e od M 4.59 6.45 6.22 5.37 3.73 g en r st Low fitness
Moderate fitness High fitness th w Lo st ng re th 40 30 20 10 P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u la t io n in c a t e g o r y (% ) 0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Black men 3.8 29.1 9.6 17.4 15.7 2.1 8.1 3.5 10.8
White men 10.1 15.7 12.1 12.3 11.9 12.4 9.9 9.4 6.1 P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u la t io n in c a t e g o r y (% ) P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u la in c a t e g o r y (% ) (men) 40 34.3 South Asian women 35 30 15.0 25 20 7.5 15 10 5 0 3.0 6.1 10.7
5.2 13.7 4.5 Low fitness Moderate fitness High fitness P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u in c a t e g o r y (% ) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 White women 15.9 9.7 14.2 9.55.9 12.4 11.8 12.2 8.4 36.0 40 Black women 35 19.9 30 25 10 5
0 3.9 2.7 South Asian men 15.8 20 6.3 15 8.1 3.1 30.2 35 25 8.9 7.3 15 40 30 10.1 20 P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u la t io n in c a t e g o r y (% ) P r o p o r t io n o f p o p u la t io n in c a t e g o r y (% ) (women)
10 Low fitness Moderate fitness High fitness 5 0 11.1 14.0 4.9 4.4 6.2 7.1 Low fitness Moderate fitness High fitness Table 2. Attributable risk and attributable fraction of low-to-moderate cardiorespiratory fitness and low-to-moderate muscular strength for diabetes in White, Black and South Asian men and women Men Women White Black South Asian White Black South Asian Attributable risk (diabetes cases per 100 people)
1.4 (0.5-2.3) 4.1 (3.5-10.9) 8.2 (2.3-18.6) 1.0 (0.5-1.5) 4.3 (2.2-7.8) 5.0 (2.8-12.5) Attributable fraction for diabetes risk (%) 24.5 (6.339.1) 28.1 (22.560.4) 45.7 (18.881.2) 27.3 (5.1-44.3) 42.6 (20.179.9) 47.2 (20.886.6) Discussion Result (contd) Findings suggest a graded association between weaker muscular strength, low cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk, particularly in South Asian and Black ethnic groups. remained significant after adjustment for adiposity (BMI and %body fat). Need to include strength-training exercises, as well as
aerobic physical activity, in future lifestyle interventions trials for diabetes prevention. Need to target black and south Asian adults for interventions to increase strength and fitness. Strengths and Limitations Strength of study: Primary predictors objectively measured Large sample size Ethnic diversity Limitations: Cross sectional study Can not determine causal association Selection bias? Conclusion Independent associations between fitness and muscular strength on diabetes risk in white European, south Asian and black adults Low-to-moderate fitness and strength could importantly contribute to a disproportionately large proportion of diabetes cases in the south Asian and black groups A clear case for future randomised controlled trials of
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