United Postal Stationery Society Introduction to U.S. Postal
United Postal Stationery Society Introduction to U.S. Postal Stationery Postal Stationery is postal matter which has either an officially authorized pre-printed stamp or inscription indicating that a specific face value of postage or related service has been prepaid Envelopes with these stamps are all considered Postal Stationery since a specific face value of postage has been prepaid. Postal Stationery is postal matter which has either an
officially authorized pre-printed stamp or inscription indicating that a specific face value of postage or related service has been prepaid These envelopes do not have a stamp with specific face value and are not considered to be postal stationery (even though the official postal service envelope at lower left is listed in many catalogs). Introduction The earliest items of U.S. postal stationery were envelopes. The other forms of U.S. postal stationery include: wrappers (newspaper bands), postcards,
letter cards, and air letter sheets (aerograms) Other types of documents (such as registration envelopes and certificates of posting) bearing impressions of postage stamp designs have been produced by other countries. Introduction to U.S. Envelopes The first American envelope was developed in 1839. Until 1847, postage was charged by the number of sheets as well as the distance to be traveled. Thus use of an envelope doubled postage. This and paper shortages caused few envelopes to be used.
The first U.S. Postal envelope was produced in 1853. Postal Stationery collecting encompasses the indicia (stamp) as well as the differing envelopes on which the stamp appears. attributes necessary to identify the envelope include size, knife, paper type, gum type, watermark and recycle logo. Envelope Size About 25 sizes of U.S. stamped envelopes have been produced. The Postal Service now uses 3 basic sizes for modern envelopes 6 - 165 mm by 92 mm UPSS size 12 9 225 by 98 mm
UPSS size 21 10 241 by 105 mm UPSS size 23 The UPSS has established a unique number for each size to allow comparison historically when the Post Office changed size designations. Envelope Knife Knife is the overall shape of the envelope prior to folding . Originally, the knife was a cookie cutter type mold used to cut the actual blank envelope shape. The knife would be laid on a pile of sheets and cut around with a sharp knife in early years or pushed through the paper with a
hydraulic press in later years. Now envelopes are cut from paper rolls by rotary knives. However, the term is still used to refer to the shape prior to folding. Modern Envelope Knives Top Flap Left Flap Right Flap Bottom Flap
Knife 69 (with window) Left Flap Knife 70 (plain front) Envelope Paper Two basic types of paper Laid and Wove have been used to U.S. produce envelopes. Paper is manufactured by placing a paper mash thinly on a woven wire mesh. Water is removed and the paper is dried.
Laid paper shows a watermark of parallel lines close together when held to a light. The lines may either be horizontal, vertical or diagonally. Horizontally Laid Diagonally Laid Wove paper is similarly produced however the wires of the mesh are interwoven much like a screen. This paper has a mottled appearance and was produced as both standard or extra quality paper which can be differentiated by either weight or thickness. Wove Paper
Watermarks Watermarks are impressions made when paper is manufactured as a security device and are visible as lighter areas when paper is held to a light. Watermark 30 Watermark 48 Watermarks were produced by soldering bent wires onto a mesh cylinder. Then the paper mash was applied and the raised areas of the cylinder transferred to the paper as thinner areas.
Watermark designs changed with each new envelope contract in the U.S. until 1961. Watermark 51 Use of watermarked paper ceased with the introduction of recycled paper in the 1990s. Paper Color Envelope paper colors varied throughout production. They include white, amber, oriental buff, fawn, blue and manila. Manila is a paper type more than a color, is cheap and of low quality.
White Blue Amber Manila Oriental Buff Fawn A color chart is shown on the next
slide that can assist in the identification of the various envelopes used with the different colored paper. Paper Color Chart Embossed Envelope Dies Dies are used to create the impressions on the envelope. They are hand engraved in reverse on a steel block. These Master dies are hardened and then used to produce Hub dies which in turn are used to make the working dies used during production of the envelopes. Although the images that appear on modern envelopes are still
referred to as dies, modern envelopes no longer are printed from embossed dies. Since the 1970s stamps have been largely surface printed on envelopes Surface Printed Dies Lithography Lithography uses chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image is water-retaining. Thus, ink will adhere to the positive image and be transferred to the paper.
Surface Printed Dies Topographic printing is the exact opposite of engraved printing. The ink for the stamped area is applied directly to the raised portion of a plate for transfer to the envelope. Surface Printed Dies Flexographic printing is a form of rotary web letterpress, combining features of both letterpress and rotogravure printing, using relief plates of flexible rubber or photopolymer and a fast drying, low viscosity solvent,
water-based or UV curable inks. Flexographic Plate Gum (Adhesive) Gum is used to keep the envelope together by adhering the side and bottom flaps to one other while the gum on the top flap remains unadhered to allow the user to seal the envelope after the contents have been inserted. Originally, gum was applied by hand until the equipment to do it mechanically was developed. Currently, two basic types of gum are used water activated which requires adding moisture and pressure sensitive which only requires a peel and press operation. Hand Gummed (Square Gum)
Machine Gummed (Round) Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Peel Strip Early Recycle Logos In an effort to exhibit a more environmentally friendly awareness, the Postal Service required that envelope paper contain varying amounts of recycled paper along with the virgin fiber. To reflect this commitment, recycle logos with various text and compliance symbols are depicted on the envelopes. There are 21 different logos. Examples of some are shown below.
Recycle Logo E Recycle Logo A Recycle Logo C Recycle Logo I Modern Recycle Logos Recycle Logo J Recycle Logo L Recycle Logo M
Recycle Logo O Recycle Logo U The Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI) emblem was added to the logo in May, 2009. In January, 2010, the Cradle to Cradle (CTC) emblem was added to the right of the SFI emblem. Another change occurred in January, 2011 when the CTC emblem was moved to the far right of the entire logo string. Then in June, 2012 the CTC emblem was
found to be missing from the logo altogether. In January 2015, a new certification was used from the Forestry Stewardship Council replacing the SFI emblem. This change occurred due to a change in the paper supplier United Postal Stationery Society catalogs are a one source reference for all postal stationery listings including illustrations, prices, knives, logos and more. Begin your collecting experience
by obtaining a catalog now and joining the United Postal Stationery Society today! What may look like an everyday item could be something more valuable than imagined! Order printed or electronic books from the Society website at: www.upss.org
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