Network Fundamentals Module 6 Objectives Identify Common Network
Network Fundamentals Module 6 Objectives Identify Common Network Devices Define Protocols Fundamentals of DNS Network Configuration Tools Common Network Devices Network Interface Card (NIC) Allows computer to talk to a network
Hub Allows multiple network devices to connect. A signal comes in one port and is transmitted to all other ports. Switch Allows multiple network devices to connect, but does not distribute signals without verifying whether it really needs to propagate to a given port or ports Common Network Devices Wireless Access Point (WAP) Allows users to connect to a network without wires RF signals are used to communicate instead of physical wires
Wireless access standards are broadly divided into 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g Router Forwards data packets between networks; used to connect different networks and transfer packets between them Gateway Used to connect two different types of networks Modem Translates digital signals from a computer into analog signals
Protocols Protocols A set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network Not hardware (cable, routers, etc.); rather what makes all the hardware function together and allows it communicate Internet Protocol (IP) A set of related network protocols (TCP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, ARP, ICMP) used to move data around the Internet and other networks Protocols allow the following to occur
Streaming video or music online (UDP) Changes www.google.com to 220.127.116.11 (DNS) Safely perform transactions online (SSL) Chat online (IRC) Protocols TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Most commonly used protocol for Internet communication IP Addressing The IP address uniquely identifies computers on a TCP/IP network Every node (client, server, router) on a network has to have a unique IP
address (192.168.1.15 for example) UDP - User Datagram Protocol A connectionless service Main alternative to TCP DNS - Domain Name System Translates network address (such as IP addresses) into terms understood by humans (such as Domain Names) and vice-versa Protocols DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Can automatically assign Internet addresses to computers and users
FTP - File Transfer Protocol A protocol that is used to transfer and manipulate files over the network HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol An Internet-based protocol for sending and receiving web pages HTTPS - HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure An Internet-based protocol for sending and receiving WebPages securely IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol A protocol for e-mail messages on the Internet
Protocols IRC - Internet Relay Chat A protocol used for Internet chat and other communications POP3 - Post Office protocol Version 3 A protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve messages from remote servers SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol A protocol for e-mail messages on the Internet ARP Address Resolution Protocol Converts an IP address to its corresponding
physical network address Protocols SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol A standard TCP/IP protocol used to monitor and map network availability, performance, and error rates Telnet A remote terminal access protocol SSH Secure Shell A secure remote terminal access protocol
SSL - Secure Sockets Layer A security protocol to enable Web sites to pass sensitive information securely in an encrypted format LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol A network protocol and a standard architecture for organizing the directory data TCP Most communications are handled using TCP TCP is reliable Acknowledgements indicate delivery of data Checksums are used to detect corrupted data
Sequence numbers detect missing, or mis-sequenced data Corrupted data is retransmitted after a timeout Mis-sequenced data is re-sequenced Flow control prevents over-run of receiver Uses congestion control to share network capacity among users TCP is connection-oriented Commonly used for World Wide Web E-mail File transfer UDP
UDP is not reliable Not guaranteed that packets will be received No acknowledgements to indicate delivery of data Data may arrive out of sequence Data may be duplicate or go missing Congestion of data is common Checksums are used to detect tampering or corruption Commonly used for Streaming music or video Voice over IP (VoIP) Gaming DNS
File Integrity Network data transmissions often produce errors, such as toggled, missing or duplicated bits The data received might not be identical to the data transmitted Checksums are used Ensures the integrity of data portions for data transmission or storage Hash functions A hash value is generated for each given message Used for data comparison and detecting duplicated data Commonly used to check data integrity
File Integrity Md5 A command line utility usable on either Unix or MS-DOS/Windows which generates and verifies message digests using the MD5 algorithm Security has been compromised as an encryption protocol, however, used mostly to provide some assurance that a transferred file has arrived intact and uncorrupted How to use md5 http://www.openoffice.org/dev_docs/using_md5sums.html Ports Port
A virtual connection point that allows software applications to share hardware resources without interfering with each other Computers and routers automatically manage network traffic traveling via their virtual ports Used in protocols to name the ends of logical connections which carry long term conversations Well known (privileged) ports 1-1023 Registered ports 1024-49151
Dynamic or private ports 49152-65535 Common Ports A service contact port is defined for providing services to unknown callers These are common ports that are easily targeted TCP port 21 - FTP (File Transfer Protocol) TCP port 23 - Telnet TCP port 25 - SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) TCP and UDP port 53 - DNS (Domain Name System) TCP ports 80 and 443 - HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol) and HTTPS (HTTP over SSL) TCP port 110 - POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)
TCP and UDP port 135 Windows RPC TCP and UDP ports 137139 - Windows NetBIOS over TCP/IP On a Unix/Linux system, ports and associated service names are listed in the /etc/services file For a complete list of ports and services, see http://packetlife.net/media/library/23/common-ports.pdf DNS Domain Name System (DNS) Associates information with domain names It translates human-readable computer hostnames (e.g., ww.wikipedia.org) into the IP address
Requests and responses are normally sent as UDP packets (to port 53) DNS is a distributed database: parts of the tree (called "zones") are held in different servers DNS servers do not contain the entire database, but rather a subset Each zone has two or more authoritative nameservers These authoritative DNS servers publish information about that domain and the nameservers of any domains "beneath" it (See next slide for illustration) Every caching nameserver is seeded with a list of root servers Currently there are only 13 root servers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNS DNS DNS is structured as a hierarchy similar to the IP routing hierarchy. The computer requesting a name resolution will be re-directed 'up' the hierarchy until a DNS server is found that can resolve the domain name in the request. http://www.theshulers.com/whitepapers/internet_whitepaper/index.html#http Tools Nslookup
Tool used to query DNS for a domain name or IP address At a command line, type nslookup and hit enter. Tools Whois Command returns information about a domain name or IP address such as domain name, registrant, contacts, nameservers, and domain name dates (i.e., activation, expiration) To perform a Whois search online go to http://www.internic.net/whois.html Tools Traceroute
Command that shows the path a network packet takes from origination to destination The command displays how many hops from router to router it takes for the packet to reach its destination Also displayed are the addresses of each router and the time it takes for a packet to go from router to router If a router is not reachable, you will see a request timeout In UNIX machines the command is traceroute, in MS Windows machines it is called tracert. This command is not always effective as many sites block ICMP to minimize DDoS issues
The next slide shows an example of running the command Tools Traceroute See results for tracert www.yahoo.com Tools Netstat A tool for checking network configuration and activity such as All connections including what protocol and its current state Display contents of the IP Routing table Network interface statistics
Displays different information by using different parameters or flags with the command (e.g., netstat a) Note: Windows and Unix have different flags and options available For Windows XP http://www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/windows/xp/all/prod docs/en-us/netstat.mspx?mfr=true For Linux http://tldp.org/LDP/nag2/x-087-2-iface.netstat.html http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/03/netstat-command-examples/ Tools
Netstat Display all connections and current state using netstat a (Windows XP) Tools Netstat Display contents of the IP Routing table using netstat r (Linux) http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/03/netstat-command-examples/ Tools Netstat
Display interface statistics using netstat i) Linux only The RX and TX columns show how many packets have been received or transmitted error-free (RX-OK/TX-OK) or damaged (RX-ERR/TX-ERR); how many were dropped (RX-DRP/TX-DRP); and how many were lost because of an overrun (RX-OVR/TX-OVR) The last column shows the flags that have been set for this interface http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2010/03/netstat-command-examples/ Tools Snort An open source network intrusion prevention and detection system
(IDS/IPS) Can be configured in three main modes Sniffer Will read and display network packets Packet logger Records packets to disk Network intrusion detection Monitor and analyze network traffic according to a previously defined ruleset Perform defined action based on what it found Download at http://www.snort.org/snort-downloads The Snort Manual - http://www.snort.org/assets/166/snort_manual.pdf
Tools Wireshark A network packet analyzer that captures packets and displays that packet data for easier examination Can be used to Troubleshoot network problems Examine security problems Debug protocol implementations Import and export packet data Filter packets based on criteria Makes it easy to differentiate protocols, traffic, etc. by color coding on
screen Download at http://www.wireshark.org/download.html User guides and presentations at http://www.wireshark.org/docs/ Tools Screenshot of packets being captured using Wireshark For more details, see http://www.wireshark.org/docs/wsug_html_chunked/ChUseMainWindowS ection.html Summary Identified common network devices Defined protocols
Discussed the fundamentals of DNS Introduced some free network configuration tools List of References http://www.starlancs.com/EducateMe/educate_network_devices.html http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/centri4/user/scf4ap1.htm http://www.theshulers.com/whitepapers/internet_whitepaper/index.html#http http://fcit.usf.edu/network/chap2/chap2.htm http://www.comptechdoc.org/independent/networking/cert/netterms.html http://packetlife.net/media/library/23/common-ports.pdf http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/3/html/Security_Guide /ch-ports.html http://www.mediacollege.com/internet/troubleshooter/traceroute.html
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