Introduction to Blended Learning: Instructional Design Considerations Dr.

Introduction to Blended Learning: Instructional Design Considerations Dr.

Introduction to Blended Learning: Instructional Design Considerations Dr. Jolly Holden Graduate Adjunct Faculty School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association Skip Intro: Click for Presentation Ma p Introduction Blended learning is more than just combining an online component to the traditional classroomit is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate media for a specific learning intervention based upon the learning objectives. With that said, given the plethora of instructional media available to the instructional designer today, combined with the emergence of web-based collaborative tools, there is a renewed focus on integrating Web 2.0/e-learning 2.0 tools and other instructional media in meeting todays learning challenges. Blended learning represents a [fundamental] shift in instructional strategy North American Council for Online Learning, Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education, 2008

Why Blended Learning: The Challenge Driven by the demand to increase learning opportunities and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, educators and trainers are continually challenged in searching for the for right mix of instructional media. Taking into consideration all of the instructional technologies available today, selecting the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive courseware delivery methods in meeting the needs of our learners can be a challenging and daunting task. Consequently, this presentation address these two basic questions: Q1: What is the most appropriate mix of instructional media, and Q2: What are the variables to consider when selecting the most appropriate media? Rules of Engagement for Blended Learning Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained. For a blended learning solution to be successful, it is imperative a thorough media analysis and needs assessment is conducted while addressing the fundamental components of the instructional systems design process. Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it. The e-Learning Developers Journal (2005) Basic Blended Learning Concepts

Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content Basic Blended Learning Concepts Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, discussion boards) Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (blogs) Basic Blended Learning Concepts Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content

Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (wikis, blogs, discussion boards) Adaptive tools used for dynamic instructional design of content and increased interaction (immersive learning environments) Media attributes are important in that they may affect your choice of instructional strategies The Blended Learning Journey This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing variables to consider when developing a blended learning strategy. Additionally, this presentation will introduce the concepts of synchronicity (integration of learning environments) and elasticity (integration of instructional media with instructional strategies) to ensure the right mix is attained. Presentation objectives: Review the Evolution of Instructional Media Define Blended Learning Define Learning Environments Define Elasticity and Synchronicity Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations Identify & Evaluate Instructional & Pedagogical Variables The Blended Learning Presentation Map Return to Title Slide

Evolution of Instructional Media [for distance learning] Blended Learning Definitions Learning Environments (synchronous & asynchronous) Learning Model Learning Environment Component Media Component Click for Glossary Instructional Component Elasticity Implications (trends from the industry) Navigation Bar Click on any link for direct access to that topic Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model

Elasticity Implications Evolution of Instructional Media for Distance Learning: The Beginning I do not know any innovation upon existing methods more radical and revolutionary than this Although this quote sounds as if it were referring to a new technological break- through, in reality, this profound statement was uttered by the Reverend Joseph H. Odell, D. D. (1910) in his address titled "The New Era in Education: A Study of the Psychology of Correspondence Methods of Instruction" delivered in 1910 at the dedication of the instruction building of the International Correspondence Schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

Evolution of Distance Learning Media: The Emergence of Blended Learning What does it mean to the future of education and training? As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, blended learning will become an integral component in developing a comprehensive blended learning strategy. Consequently, When developing a learning strategy for the future, it is sometimes prudent to study the past in order to develop a plan for tomorrow. The term blended learning has been redefined, from a combination of instructor and Web-based training to a blend of many types of interactive content Josh Bersin, Todays High-Impact Learning Organization, Chief Learning Officer Magazine, Aug, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications

In the beginning, there was only correspondence courses, and the concept of blending wasnt born yet. Correspondence Technology-enabled (1883-present) (circa 1950s-1990s The Family Tree of Distance learning Media e-learning TV (satellite & cable) audio tape audio graphics audio conferencing (circa 1995-present) As the country grew and evolved from an agrarian society to an industrialized nation, the demand for education increased significantly. With the ensuinL emergence of radio and TV, the education community quickly realized the potential of these new media and adopted them to distribute education programs to a

geographically dispersed workforce. Electronic-assisted Learning (circa 1990-present) Satellite e-learning/ITV Electronic whiteboards Video Conferencing Video tape/DVD/ ipods Then, as the technology evolved, more delivery tools emerged to where the instructional designer now has a plethora of choices that can be used singularly or integrated to create a blended learning solution. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity

Implications Note: In the early 90s, a migration began from a mainframe-centric environment to a more of a stand-alone distributed computer environment that allowed for more local hosting of computer-based training (CBT). Computer-mediated Learning (circa 1970-present) Computer-based Training (CBT) Web-based Training Online Learning Media Evolution Definitions With the introduction of the computer, learning communities quickly realized the potential of this powerful new technology and adopted it as another delivery tool. As the computer continued to evolve, a new generation of the computer-mediated instruction

arrived, and with the emergence of the internet, new collaborative tools and delivery media also appeared. Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Extending the Family Distance learning will evolve from Tree of Distance Learning basic enrollment in computer and webbased courses to virtual learning Media to the Future environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors. Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide for a solid foundation to ensure

learning outcomes are attained. In this global, networked world, several technologies including search engines, blogs, podcasts, Web 2.0 applications and virtual worlds such as Second Life will be used for learning. Ed Hoff, CLO IBM, Learning in the 21st Century: A Brave New World, CLO Magazine, April, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Definitions Although the application of blended learning has been around for decades, there is no universally accepted definition. While it appears the term first appeared in the literature circa 1999, the following pages

articulate several definitions that represent different perspectives in an attempt to define the term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. The definitions offered in this presentation reflect 5 different perspectives concerning blended learning: Educational Pragmatic Training Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Point of View Holistic A rose by any other name is still a rose More definitions of blended learning available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/elearning/blended.html Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Definitions An Educational Perspective* Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities

in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; andwhere a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity. Traditional Classroom Blended Learning Online Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigmsthe traditional classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment. Note: Hybrid learning, vis--vis blended learning, is often used in higher education when the student has a choice between an online class and the traditional classnot necessarily the integration of the two. Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, 2005. Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity

Implications Blended Learning Definitions A Pragmatic Perspective Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at a distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies (Source: edutechwiki, 2006, Available at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning) More specifically To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments

Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Definitions A Corporate Training Perspective The use of multiple instructional delivery media to deliver one course or curriculum, such as a sales training course with pre-reading, asynchronous online product knowledge training, and synchronous lectures and role play practices. Source: e-Learning Guilds Research Report ,Synchronous Learning Systems, June 2008 Synchronous and asynchronous media. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to a mix of online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions). Source: e-Learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007) Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy. Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments

Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Definitions A Chief Learning Officer Perspective Executing a learning strategy that integrates multiple delivery modalities (both synchronous and asynchronous) and, in doing so, creating the best possible learning solution for your target audience. Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine (www.clomedia.com), Executing Blended Learning, Jan., 2009 Courses will combine live, virtual and constructive formats even while being distributed to increase training effectiveness and as well as shift to more cost-effective methods. Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008) Click here for note on Web 3.0 & Virtual Worlds Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model

Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Definitions A Holistic Perspective The delivery of instruction using multiple media* Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment. Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Note: This definition is a general construct and includes these attributes: 1.Combines more than one media (multiple media), regardless of synchronicity 2.Basis in instructional design 3.Foundation based upon instructional objectives 4.Organization that provides the content in contrast to purely self-directed learning Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity

Implications The Basics The Learning Environment: Two Dimensions Synchronous Asynchronous Same time/same place (traditional instructor-led classroom) Same time/different place (virtual instructor-led classroom) Different time/different place Click here to view the Instructional Media Selection Matrix for Distance Learning Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model

Elasticity Implications Integration of Both Dimensions: The Concept of Synchronicity Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity. Synchronous Blended Learning Asynchronous Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media. Media Evolution Definitions

Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Blended Learning Model Concept Map Distance Learning Depicted in this concept map is the blended learning model three main Asynchronous Synchronous components and subcomponents. The degree of integration of each of the subcomponents is based upon evaluating Collaborative specific attributes of each component, Tools resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the instructional goal. Note: This model is based upon a set of related components, although evaluated separately, are viewed holistically, per se,

each components specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution. Definitions Instructional Objectives Instructional Component Content Instructional Strategies Media Component Complexity Rapidity of Change Multimedia (aural/visual)

Synchronicity Interactivity Symmetry Asymmetrical Media Media Evolution Traditional Classroom Learning Environment Component Asynchronous Instructional Media Symmetrical Media Learning Environments Synchronous Instructional Media

Asynchronous Collaboration (P2P) Blended Learning Model Synchronous Didactic Elasticity Collaboration (P2P) Implications Dialectic Blended Learning Model Components Derived from the blended learning concept map is the tri-dimensional blended learning module. A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation. Learning environment component:

Evaluates the learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous) that supports the instructional objectives Instructional Component Learning En vironment C omponent Media component: Used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content Instructional component: Used to select the most appropriate instructional strategies that support the learning objectives Media Co mponent Click on any of the model component links for detailed information for that specific component. Click here for a summary of each component. Media Evolution

Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning The power of blended learning is in its elasticity Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning Learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis Environment asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend". As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes. Media Evolution Definitions

Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Instructional Media Elasticity Implications Elasticity in Blended Learning What is the right mix? There may be several blended solutions that can meet the instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intradependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media. Learning Environment Instructional Media

With that said, any combination of instructional delivery medium, including the traditional classroom, can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional and learning environment components. Click here for another view of the blend Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Survey of Chief Learning Officers (CLOs) Use of Blended Learning Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine Business Intelligence Board* The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%) * Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine. (July, 2007). Blended Learning: Mixing Modalities. Available at: http://www.clomedia.com Media Evolution

Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (cont) The greatest change in the delivery mix will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies. IBMs perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility Did you know thatclick here Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments

Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (cont) [There is] an important link between content type and delivery method and that studentinstructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization... and The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous elearning.as well as student-to-student interaction. CLO Magazine., July, 2007, pg. 48-49 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Growth of Blended Learning in Higher Education Survey indicated that more emphasis is expected on blended learning

instruction that combines face-to-face with online offeringsthan on fully online courses. Those surveyed predicted a distinct shift from about one quarter of classes being blended today to perhaps the vast majority of courses having some Web component by the end of the decade.* * Source: Kyong-Jee Kim and Curtis J. Bonk, The Future of Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, EDUCAUSE Quarterly, Number 4, 2006. Available at: http://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/TheFutureofOnlineTeaching/40000 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications SoWhat Does it Mean? The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in

nutrition only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement. Richard.Clark, Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media. Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp. 445-459 "It is likely not the blendedness that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices. Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2, Issue 1 Feb, 2003. Available at: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/view/v2n1/coverv2n1.htm Theres an important point that is easy to miss in the frenzy of change. Web 2.0 is not about technology, and neither is e-Learning 2.0. The human element is what makes the new Web work. Without user-generated content, the new Web would be an empty shell of fancy technologies. e-Learning Guild, What is e-Learning 2.0? , Aug, 2008 Media Evolution Definitions Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications Final Note: The Learning Mantra Its not just about technologyits about people

Training/education is the process Learning is the outcome The technology is the means Sender (Instructor) Collaboration + Delivery System Teamwork = Success Receiver (Learner) Focus on learning outcomesthe end result: Improving human performance Media Evolution Definitions

Learning Environments Blended Learning Model Elasticity Implications End of Presentation One only needs two tools in life: WD-40 to make things go, and duct tape to make them stop. G. M. Weilacher, American humorist and, a hammer to pound things in and a screw driver to pry them out my wife Click to go back to prior slide Click to go back to Presentation Map Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Learning Environment Component A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time

with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal. Asynchronous Distance Learning Synchronous Back to Main Page Traditional Classroom Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous

The Synchronous Learning Environment Synchronous Asynchronous Advantages Disadvantages Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity Encourages spontaneity of oral responses Immediate reinforcement of ideas Supports activation learning strategies such as idea generation (brainstorming) Provides for peer support (social learning theory) Allows for peer-to-peer interaction Structured learning environment Back to Main Page Limited to same time Required dedicated instructor Does not provide for self-pacing May be limited to same place (albeit at a distance)

High cognitive load Learning Environment Page Synchronous Asynchronous The Asynchronous Learning Environment Different/Same Place Different Time Advantages Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought Not constrained by time Delayed reinforcement of ideas Provides for flexibility in delivery of content Less structured learning environment Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.) Disadvantages No live interaction Longer completion times Just-in-time = do-it-on-your

own-time Higher non-completion rates pacing not optimized Back to Main Page Learning Environment Page Asynchronous Synchronous Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Media Component Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the most appropriate media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected. Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may

have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. Click here for more on media mapped to the distance learning environment. Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Wikis, blogs, discussion boards Back to Main Page Synchronous Instructional Media Portability Media Component Taxonomy Portability

Taxonomy of Media for Blended Learning The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment * Click here for note on use of Wikis & Blogs as collaborative tools * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Integrating Media: A Blended Learning Approach Integrating any combination of synchronous/ asynchronous media with the traditional classroom results in a blended learning solution. Synchronous Media Asynchronous Media Online (Web-Based Training) Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing

Audio Graphics Web Conferencing/SLS Webinars Computer-based Training Video Tape/DVD Audio Tape Podcast/vodcast Traditional Classroom Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Synchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Audio Conferencing

An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio. Audiographics Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to highresolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites. Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems) Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), highresolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS).

Instructional Television (ITV) ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave Synchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Description Instructional Television (ITV)- cont towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems. Satellite e-learning Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP

(Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IPbased video can be distributed directly to the users end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the users end-point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol). Synchronous Instructional Media Technology Delivery Video Teleconferencing (VTC) Description VTC systems are two-way communication systems that offer both audio and video from local and remote sites and provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations. It allows for the instructor to observe the students at the far end (remote location), allowing the student to demonstrate an event. These systems can be terrestrial, satellite-based, or

microwave-based Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS). Generally VTCs transmit and receive between 384Kbps 1.5Mbps, with the next generation coders/decoders (codecs) IP enabled. Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back When evaluating media components, wikis, blogs, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction. In a research study investigating the interplay of synchronous and asynchronous communication used in online courses, students seemed more satisfied with face-to-face courses that used asynchronous discussion boards as alternative communication media than courses that were entirely asynchronous based. Significant data were found to indicate the effect of synchronous media in a mostly asynchronous discussion forum. The ability of synchronous media to foster social presence is not shown or disproved by the research Source: A Field Study of Use of Synchronous Chat in Online Courses (2002), Retrieved from: http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HICSSpapers/CLTSL03.pdf Back to Taxonomy Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Asynchronous Instructional Media

Technology Delivery Description Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) On-demand, online-based instruction stored on a server and accessed across a distributed electronic network. It can be delivered over the Internet or private local area network (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WANs) where the content is displayed utilizing a web browser. Student access is asynchronous, self-paced, and does not provide for synchronous interaction between the instructor and the remote student. High-resolution images and video may be limited due to available bandwidth. Computer Based Instruction (CBI) Interactive instructional experience between a computer and the learner where the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the student responds. The computer is the storage and delivery device with all content resident on the students computer. It provides the primary display and storage capability and can support highresolution images and video. Correspondence (print) Entirely print-based, asynchronous and self-paced. Can be augmented through the use of multimedia CD-ROM. Instructor feedback can be facilitated through the use of e-mail. Used extensively to support other media

Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast) Recorded audio contenton tape or transmitted electronicallywhich can be used as a stand-alone delivery tool or part of a blended learning approach. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) A method of capturing learning content on tape or as a digital file for viewing ondemand. Can be used as the sole means of content or as part of a blended approach. Often used to capture a real time event and is an effective distribution medium that supports high-resolution images and video but does not support a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and the remote student. Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Portability Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods/Blackberrys, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices. When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in

either direction. For example: Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or asynchronous learning module with no interaction between the student and instructor. Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical, per se, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions. A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the student-instructor interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system. Back to Main Page Media Component Taxonomy Portability Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection. High

Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Web conferencing Satellite e-learning Symmetry Click on the icon of how Merrill Lynch use of mobile learning Print Pre-recorded audio/ video (Tape/DVD) ipods/vpods/personal communication devices CBT/WBT Low High Interactivity Back to Main Page Media Component Portability

Taxonomy Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Instructional Component: Variables to Consider Multimedia (aural/visual) Rapidity of Change Instructional Objectives Content Complexity Instructional Strategies Learning Styles Click for information o n learning styles

When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. Consequently, learning objectives are never compromised when developing a blended learning solution. Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media) Asynchronous Collaboration (P2P) Didactic# # Instructional strategies are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives and facilitate the transfer of learning. Synchronous Collaboration (P2P)

Dialectic* Instructor-student Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Strategies * Instructor-student-instructor Instructional Objectives Note on Learning Objectives The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking: Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog).

Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies What is a Learning Objective? A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity o Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency o Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Why Developing Learning Objectives?

The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful. Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning Used to develop instructional strategies Basis for media selection Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Types of Objectives Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains: Psychomotor Affective Cognitive Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual

skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation). Doing Higher Knowing

Lower Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis

Synthesis is the creative act. Its the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive process one of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her. Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment. The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies o Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best

suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment. o Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Table of Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Narration/Lecture Allows for transfer of learning through mere declaration and explication of knowledge. When interaction is available, it allows for reinforcement of behavior, spontaneous questioning, dialogue, and social interaction with immediate feedback. Note: Lecture is a very efficient strategy to transfer large amounts of content but has a high cognitive load. Demonstration

Skill transfer through the depiction of procedural tasks, events, processes, etc. Role Playing Involves recreating a situation relating to a real-world problem in which participants act out various roles. Promotes an understanding of other peoples positions and their attitudes as well as the procedures that may be used for diagnosing and solving problems. Learners may assume the role of a particular character, organization, professional occupation, etc. Guided Discussion Supports a synchronous, dialectic learning environment through the spontaneous and freeflowing exchange of information. Encourages active, participatory learning that supports knowledge transfer through dialogue. Students may discuss material more in-depth, share insights and experiences, and answer questions. Simulation Replicates or mimics a real event and allows for continual observation. A simulation creates a realistic model of an actual situation or environment. Illustration Depicts abstract concepts with evocative, palpable real-world examples. Back to Main Page

Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Table of Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Description Imagery Imagery is the mental visualization of objects, events, and arrays. It enables internalized visual images that relate to information to be learned. Imagery helps to create or recreate an experience in the learners mind. Imagery involves all the senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, and tactile. Modeling A contrived, simplified version of an object or concept that encapsulates its salient features. Brainstorming Brainstorming is a valid and effective problem-solving method in which criticism is delayed and imaginative ways of understanding a situation are welcomed, where

quantity is wanted and combination and improvement are sought. Brainstorming can occur with individuals or in a group setting, and involves generating a vast number of ideas in order to find an effective method for solving a problem. Case Studies A problem-solving strategy similar to simulation that works by presenting a realistic situation that requires learners to respond and explore possible solutions. Drill & Practice Repetition of a task or behavior until the desired learning outcome is achieved. Allows for transfer of knowledge from working memory to long-term memory. Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media Media Appropriate Instructional Strategy

Asynchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Demonstrations - Simulations - Illustrations - Drill and Practice Computer Based Instruction (CBI) - Narration/Description - Case Studies - Role Playing - Demonstration Correspondence (print) - Narration/Description - Drill and Practice - Case Studies - Narration Recorded Audio (Tape and digital broadcast/RSS) - Narration/Description (Lecture)

Recorded Video (Tape and digital broadcast) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Case Studies - Illustrations Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Objectives - Tutorials - Case Studies - Modeling - Role Playing - Illustrations - Simulation - Drill and Practice - Tutorials Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media Media

Appropriate Instructional Strategy Audio Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming Audiographics - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming - Illustrations Synchronous Web-Based Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Discussion - Simulation - Case Studies - Demonstration - Illustrations

Video Teleconferencing (VTC) - Narration/Description (Lecture) - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming - Case Studies - Role Playing - Panel Discussion - Simulation - Demonstration - Drill and Practice Instructional Television (ITV)/ Satellite e-learning - Narration/Description (Lecture - Guided Discussion - Brainstorming - Case Studies - Role Playing - Panel Discussion - Simulation - Demonstration - Drill and Practice

Back to Main Page Instructional Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Summarizing: The Media Component While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content for a specific medium Variables to consider: Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution) Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content Ability to update content quickly Technological infrastructure Capital & recurring costs Bandwidth Hardware end points Portability Simplex (one-way) data vis-a-vis duplex (2-way data) Click here for more on distance learning environments Click here for e-learning 2.0 technologies & definitions

Click here for an introduction to Media Synchronicity Theory Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Componen t Symmetry Asymmetrical Media Synchronicity Asynchronous Instructional Media Symmetrical Media Portability

Synchronous Instructional Media Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both? Variables to consider: Time & space Live interaction Collaboration Pacing Flexibility in content delivery Timeliness of completion Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed) Reflection of ideas Asynchronous Distance Learning Traditional Classroom

Synchronous Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Media Component Summarizing: The Instructional Component Learning Environment Component Instructional Component Instructional Strategies Instructional Objectives Content

Media Component Complexity Multimedia (aural/visual) Interactivity Asynchronous Collaboration (P2P) Didactic Synchronous Collaboration (P2P) Dialectic Rapidity of Change Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas

synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels. Variables to consider: Level of interactivity Spontaneity Collaboration Peer-to-peer Instructor-student (didactic) Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic) Cognitive load Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/ delayed) Rapidity of content change Complexity of content Level of cognitive objectives (click here for a brief over of Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives) What about learning styles (click here)? Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning

Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Web Conferencing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Case Studies Simulations Video Teleconferencing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations

Role Playing Audio Conferencing Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Audio Graphics Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion Idea Generation (Brainstorming) Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies Pre-recorded video (CD/DVD, vodcast, tape) Webinars Narration (Lecture) Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Simulations

Role Playing Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Drill & Practice Correspondence Narration (Lecture) Case Studies Drill & Practice Computer-based Instruction

Narration (Lecture) Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling Demonstration Case Studies Simulations Role Playing Drill & Practice Pre-recorded audio (podcast, cassette, CD) Narration (Lecture) Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective* Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep todays learners engaged.

Return to previous page * Source: On demand learning: blended learning for todays evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at: http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/gw510-6396-on-demand-learning.pdf Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Mobile Learning: Merrill Lynch Compliance Training Delivered via BlackBerrys* Background. With a population of 60,000 employees, Merrill Lynch has more than 21,000 BlackBerry devices in use globally, with 500 new devices being added monthly. One of the primary advantages of using BlackBerries to delivery m-learning is that the devices are integrated within the corporate network. Goals. Enable learning outside the office during naturally occurring downtime; leverage existing BlackBerry usage habits; allow employees to complete learning in small bursts, regardless of time and place with no need for network coverage. Results. Offered 3 compliance training courses via BlackBerry for a 2 month period and achieved: Increase of 1.21% in average competency score to the control groups Attained a 12% higher completion rate at the 45-day milestone Attained an average of 45% less time in training, with some completing the training in <80% with no loss of comprehension * Source: Chief Learning Officer magazine, Merrill Lynch: Bullish on Mobile Learning, April, 2008. Return to previous page

Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back What Might Go in the Blend* Return to previous page * Source: Allison Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazee, Blended Learning Opportunities, American Management Association Special Report, 2006 Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom Since media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solely on the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment. For example, the group centric distance learning classroom is best supported by media that can

provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment, but is limited by time and place, whereas portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction. Return to previous page group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner

Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment Distance Learning Classroom In a group centric distance learning classroom, the most appropriate media are those that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment but maybe constrained by time and place. However, portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction. group centric (classroom environment) primarily synchronous dialectic & collaborative constrained by time & place

Supporting Media Satellite e-learning Video Conferencing Audio Conferencing Audio Graphics Virtual Classroom individual centric (office environment) synchronous & asynchronous capability mostly didactic but can support interaction constrained by time not place Supporting Media Web conferencing tools Virtual Learner Return to previous page Individual centric (portable to any location) primarily asynchronous primarily didactic with little/no interaction not constrained by time & place Supporting Media Mobile devices Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back

Teaching with Instructional Television (ITV)-Did you Know There is a tendency to regard the future of distance learning as belonging solely to online or web classes. However, some researchers have found that courses offered in ITV were sometimes preferred by students even when the same course was offered online. Also, the visual and interactive nature of instructional television benefited students and that student satisfaction with ITV has been generally confirmed. Teaching with ITV (Jan, 2008). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning: http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_08/index.htm Return to previous page Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Click for Glossary Media Synchronicity Theory* Media synchronicity theory is primarily focused on groups and proposes that a set of media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory postulates it is possible for one medium to possess different levels of a communication capability depending upon how it is configured and used. Media possess many

capabilities, each of which may be more or less important in a given situation. The "richest" medium is that which best provides the set of capabilities needed by the situation: the individuals, task, and social context within which they interact (Note: richness applies to the message/content, not the richness of the visual media). Thus, concluding that face-to-face communication is the "richest" media is inappropriate. Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory. * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Retrieved from: http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/01/00011017.PDF Return to Summarizing the Media Component Media Synchronicity Theory: Dimensions of Task Functions, Communication Processes, and Media Characteristics Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory. * Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Return to Summarizing the Media Component Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back

e-Learning 2.0 Technologies Wikis Blogs Podcasts Vodcasts Immersive learning environments, e.g., multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) Note: Wikis & blogs are primarily collaborative tools and not instructional media used to deliver content Definitions* Web 2.0: The stage of the WWW where the Internet has become a platform for users to create, upload, and share content with others, versus simply downloading and consuming content. e-Learning 2.0: The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driving Web 2.0. Users/learners are empowered to search, create, and collaborate in order to fulfill intrinsic needs to learn new information. *Source: e-Learning Guild Research Report on e-Learning 2.0Learning in a Web 2.0 World, Sep 2008 Return to previous page Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Virtual worlds are online, computer-generated simulations of simulated environments where users guide their "avatar," or digital representation

of their physical selves, to accomplish various goals. Typical virtual world activities include meeting and socializing with other avatars, buying and selling virtual items, playing games, etc. Virtual worlds combine both synchronous capabilities (audio, text chat, whiteboards), as well as asynchronous capabilities (static text, embedded learning modules, learning objects, etc.). Within the context of the evolution of the Internet from Web 1.0 to Web 3.0, Virtual worlds--especially the 3D kinds--are classified under the Web 3.0 category because of their profound ability to integrate multiple types of content, information sources, and feeds into one highly engaging and interactive format. Return to previous page For information on virtual worlds used in the Federal Government: Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds. Hosted by National Defense University (NDU), Information Resources Management College (IRMC): http://www.ndu.edu/IRMC/fedconsortium.html Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Doing A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation).

Knowing Knowledge The first level of learning is knowledge. Knowledge can be characterized as awareness of specifics and of the ways and means of dealing with specifics. The knowledge level focuses on memory or recall where the learner recognizes information, ideas, principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Comprehension Comprehension is the next level of learning and encompasses understanding. Has the knowledge been internalized or understood? The student should be able to translate, comprehend, or interpret information based on the knowledge. Application Application is the use of knowledge. Can the student use the knowledge in a new situation? It can also be the application of theory to solve a real world problem. The student selects, transfers, and uses data and principles to complete a problem or task. Analysis Analysis involves taking apart a piece of knowledge, and investigates parts of a concept. It can only occur if the student has obtained knowledge of and comprehends a concept. The student examines, classifies, hypothesizes, collects data, and draws conclusions. Synthesis Synthesis is the creative act. Its the taking of knowledge and the creation of something new. It is an inductive processone of building rather than one of breaking down. The student originates, integrates, and combines ideas into something new to him/her.

Evaluation Evaluation is judgment or decision-making where the student appraises, assesses or criticizes on a basis of specific standards/criteria. Continuum of Cognitive Domain Objectives Lower Higher Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Return to prior page Blooms Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Mapped to Instructional Media* Learning Environment Synchronous

Instructional Media Web Conferencing Audiographics Satellite e-Learning Audio/video teleconferencing Blooms Revised Taxonomy Creating Complex (Evaluation) Evaluating (Synthesis) Analyzing (Analysis) Applying Asynchronous Web-based Training (WBT) CBT Instructional TV (ITV) Pre-recorded audio/video (CDs/DVDs,

video/audio tapes/iPods) Correspondence (Application) Understanding (Comprehension) Remembering (Knowledge) * Adapted from John Lasseters media selection table Return to prior page Simple Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not either-or extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active

or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic). What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learners best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm Return to Prior Page Different Learning/Cognitive Styles* Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles, e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic & Verbal-Imagery (Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman & Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); TolerantIntolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized: Allinson & Hayes Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apters Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn & Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistles Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorcs Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmanns

Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumfords Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jacksons Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolbs Learning Style Inventory (LSI); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Ridings Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternbergs Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf; Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html Return to Prior Page Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles? Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research. Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not either-or extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic).

What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learners best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality. The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning). Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm Return to Prior Page Different Learning/Cognitive Styles* Research has identified over 71 different types of learning styles, e.g., Field Dependence-Independence (Witkin, 1962); Holist-Analytic & Verbal-Imagery (Riding, 1991); Impulsivity-Reflectivity (Kagan, 1965); Leveler-Sharpener (Holzman & Klein, 1954); Simultaneous-Successive (Des, 1988); Diverging-Converging (Hudson, 1966); TolerantIntolerant and Flexible control vs. Restructuring (Gardner, 1959); Sensory modality preferences (Bartlett, 1932), sensory (visual, aural, kinesthetic), etc. Thirteen major learning styles models have been categorized: Allinson & Hayes Cognitive Styles Index (CSI); Apters Motivational Style Profile (MSP); Dunn & Dunn VAK instruments of learning styles; Entwistles Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST); Gregorcs Mind Styles Model and Style Delineator (GSD); Herrmanns Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI); Honey and Mumfords Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ); Jacksons Learning Styles Profiler (LSP); Kolbs Learning Style Inventory (LSI);

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Ridings Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA); Sternbergs Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI); and Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties. Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf; Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html Return to Prior Page Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back What are Instructional Strategies? Instructional strategies focus on the delivery of knowledge, while cognitive strategies focus on how the learner processes the knowledge. Instructional strategies describe the general components of a set of procedures used to enable students mastery of learning outcomes. Instructional strategies are developed in support of the instructional goal and specific learning objectives The instructional strategy is a product that can be used for:

Prescription to develop instructional materials Framework by which to develop student/group exercises/activities Media selection Return to Prior Page Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Synchronous Learning Environment Start Yes Is there a visual requirement? Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites? Yes

No Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student? Yes Audio Conferencing Satellite IP (wireless) Yes DVD/Video Tape/Ground Shipment Yes No Is there a visual requirement?

No Yes Yes No Click to go back Is there a requirement for video & audio? VTC Asynchronous Learning Environment No Is a synchronous learning environment required? Is there an audio requirement? Is there an audio requirement?

No Yes Instructional TV Synchronous WBI (narrowband) Audiographics Synchronous WBI (broadband) Asynchronous WBI Instructional TV VTC Yes Audio Tape Video Tape Computer Based Instruction

Satellite e-learning No No Print Print Instructional Media Selection Matrix Synchronous Learning Environment Start Yes No Is a synchronous learning environment required? Is there a visual requirement?

Is there a requirement to distribute large multimedia files to remote sites? Yes Asynchronous Learning Environment No Is there a requirement for the student to demonstrate an event or the instructor observe the student? Audio Conferencing Satellite IP (wireless) Yes DVD/Video Tape/Ground Shipment

Yes No Is there a visual requirement? The Concept of Synchronicity in Blended Learning Yes No Ye s Is there a requirement for video & audio? VTC Yes Is there an audio requirement? No

Is there an audio requirement? No Ye s Instructional TV Synchronous WBI (narrowband) Audiographics Synchronous WBI (broadband) Asynchronous WBI Instructional TV VTC Ye s Audio Tape

Video Tape Computer Based Instruction Satellite e-learning No Print No Print Intentionally Left Blank Click to go back Glossary Asynchronous learning environment is when communication between the instructor and the student is not real-time. Asynchronous media is a type of delivery medium that only supports communication between the sender and receive one-way, and does not occur in real time. Behavorialism (behavioral learning theory) is mostly concerned with observable output and does not place any emphasis on the social context of learning. In a behavioral model of instruction the mind is viewed as a black box in the sense that response to stimuli can be observed and anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured and where conditioning refers to the strengthening of [desired] behavior which results from reinforcement. Through the use of reinforcement in a predominantly individualized system of instruction, behaviorists seek to increase the number or strength of correct student responses. Under most circumstances, behaviorism is an excellent approach for assessing a learners knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject. Cognitive Levels. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. The six levels are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Cognitivism (cognitive learning theory) comes from the perspective that students actively process information and that learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organize, store, and then find relationships between information, linking old to new knowledge. Cognitive theorists believe that much learning occurs with associations through contiguity and repetition and acknowledges the importance of reinforcement. Cognitive theorists believe that human beings need to acquire and reorganize information into cognitive structures that are understandable. Note: Circa 1960, psychologists began to realize there were many aspects of learning that behavioral theorists could not account for in explaining some of the inconsistencies in learning, so cognitive theory was thrust into the forefront. However, the beginning of cognitive theory can be traced as far back as the 1920s. Constructivism is a view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information. Constructivist approaches to learning assume that subjectivity is critical because learners take in information and process it in unique ways that reflect their needs, dispositions, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. The basic idea of constructivism is that knowledge must be constructed by the learner, it cannot be supplied by the teacher. Dialectic. Discussion and reasoning by dialogue as a method of intellectual investigation; in a learning environment, the inquiry method by which the instructor and student engage in question and answering. Didactic. Designed or intended to teach; intended to convey instruction and information. In a learning environment, the transfer of information is primarily one-way from the instructor to the student as in a lecture. Distance Learning. The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction; also, structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of the instructor. Distance Education. Institutionally based formal education where the learning group is separated and where interactive communications systems are used to connect instructors, learners, and resources. Distributed Learning: Structured learning mediated with technology that does not require the physical presence of the instructor. Distributed learning models can be used in combination with other forms of instruction or it can be used to create wholly virtual classrooms (source: DODI 1322.26, June 16, 2006). e-Learning. The delivery of content via the Internet, intranet-extranet, audio and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM; also, the educational content, learning services, and delivery solutions that support and enable network-based learning that is either asynchronous or synchronous; instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Instructional media includes all means of delivering instruction via various delivery mediums including printed material (correspondence courses) and electronic devices such as computers, cable TV, satellite, electronic whiteboards, audio/video tapes, audio and videoconferencing systems, ipods, PDAs, cell phones, etc., using either wireless or wireline technologies. Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Educational Technology a more broader term but used synonymously with IT. Pedagogy. The activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill. Synchronous learning environment supports live (real time), two-way oral and/or visual communications between the instructor and the student. Synchronous media is any type of delivery medium that supports real time communication both ways between the sender and receive. Return to Presentation Map slide Intentionally Left Blank

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    Factor mobility theory . focuses on why production factors move, the effects of that movement on transforming factor endowments, and the impact of international factor mobility on world trade. Capital and labor move internationally to . gain more income. flee...
  • The Breastplate of Righteousness - Woodburn Bible Church

    The Breastplate of Righteousness - Woodburn Bible Church

    The Breastplate Symbolizes Christ's Righteousness. When Jesus gave His life for us, 2 major things happened: He took our sin upon Himself. He gave us His righteousness. When God looks at us, he sees the righteousness of Christ - This...
  • TP-CASTT Poetry Analysis

    TP-CASTT Poetry Analysis

    Title: TP-CASTT Poetry Analysis Author: Terry Blume Last modified by: april.baxter Created Date: 1/14/2009 7:03:37 AM Document presentation format
  • Tema: Discalculia

    Tema: Discalculia

    Dótelos de estrategias cognitivas que les faciliten el cálculo mental y el razonamiento visual. Adapte los aprendizajes a las capacidades del alumno, sabiendo cuales son los canales de recepción de la información básicos para éste. Haga que el estudiante lea...