Theories and Principles of Professional Ethics in Nursing
Theories and Principles of Professional Ethics in Nursing Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi Ph.D Associate Professor Tehran University of Medical Sciences email:[email protected] Some of our caring/medical society ethical dilemmas
... ( ) ) ) COMMON ETHICAL DILEMMAS WORLDWIDELY
Access to care: can one afford to go to the doctor and buy medicine? is health care a universal right or limited to those who can pay? What determines one's access to health care? Organ transplantation-issues arise regarding selection of recipients; some states require that potential donors or families be given this option; sensitive issues arise when children are involved; as a nurse, giving nonverbal indications of approval or disapproval End-of-life-decisions-euthanasia generally means a painful or peaceful death....passive is allowing one to die without extraordinary intervention.......active is speeding an individual's death through some act; assisted suicide is active euthanasia; is it ethical to use active euthanasia; can be
a great deal of controversy with moral, legal and ethical issues COMMON ETHICAL DILEMMAS WORLDWIDELY
HIV and AIDS-confidentiality a big issue; not required to report to public health officials; can a nurse refuse to care for an AIDS patient? Cloning and Genetic Manipulation, Abortion Impaired nurse Patient abuse Others? ( ) ) ) ) ))
Deontology Theories of ethics: Two Schools and 5 Principles Teleological Advocates that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the results of that action, by its consequences. Ends justifies the means. )AIDS Blood Sampling( Most Common of these theories --- Utilitarianism --which states that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness.
Greatest happiness principle, or the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Theories of ethics: Two Schools and 5 Principles Deontological Theories State that the rightness or wrongness of an action is based on the action or motives behind the action but not on the results or consequences of the action.
Doing the right thing based on principles or always telling the truth no matter what the consequences. Principles of ethics The value of life )Abortion, Euthanasia, Suicide,..( )ICU BEDs(, Assisted Suicide, no codes( Goodness or rightness )which criterions?, Misconceptions?(
Justice or fairness )how we should act?( Truth telling or honestly ) until when?( Individual freedom )patient authority))evidence base( The important of decision making in ethical problems increasing technology -regulatory pressures competitiveness among healthcare providers -national nursing shortage low salary, high work load, reduced resources inter & intrapersonal conflicts )individual beliefs and values, personal philosophy( -accountability to
profession -changes in health care delivery systems A framework for decision making in ethical problems Knowledge of patient/client values Knowledge of own values Knowledge of the situation Knowledge of the Professions values and standards
Process Standards. Examples from Science. demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations. design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, and evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness
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