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Manufacturing processes

Casting Rolling Forging Welding

Extrusion Drawing Powder metallurgy Casting processes:

Sand casting Permanent mould casting Die casting Hot chamber die casting Cold chamber die casting Centrifugal casting Investment casting

Shell mould casting Continuous casting Casting Defects

Porosity Blowholes Piping Inclusion Sponginess shrinkage

Filamentary shrinkage Hot tear Cracks

Cold shuts Unfused chaplet Misplaced core Segregation

Casting Rolling Welding Methods

Shielded metal arc

welding (SMAW) Tungsten arc welding (TIG) Metal inert gas welding (MIG) Metal active gas welding (MAG)

Flux cored arc welding Stud welding Submerge arc welding (SAW) Electro slag welding

Resistance welding Electron beam welding Laser beam welding Explosive welding

Diffusion welding Friction welding Flash welding Oxyfuel gas welding Forging and Rolling Defects:

Lamination Seams Forging laps Center burst and external burst

Clink (Thermal cracks) Hairline cracks (Flakes) Hot tear Stringer pipe

(Non :)Destructive Testing .

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Penetration Eddy -4 Current -5 Radiography Ultrasonic -6

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