Ch. 1 Foundations of Civilization I. II. Peopling of the World Neolithic Revolution Some hunters & gatherers were advanced, but Early humans were nomadic hunters & gatherers
were never able to develop complex societies & had to move around to find their food because they had to migrate to find food Farming changed theNeolithic way humans lived:
Around 8,000 B.C., the Revolution Food surpluses led People no longer hadhumans
occurred & early discovered howto population increases to betonomads farm & domesticate animals
Farming villages became established along river valleys for their good soil & irrigation Around 3,000 B.C., some farming villages became complex civilizations. Brainstorm: What characteristics are needed to makes people a civilization? ?
Advanced cities Characteristics of Civilizations ? ?
? ? ? Civilizations must have cities that are centers of trade for large areas Civilizations must have technologies
that make their lives easier Civilizations must have writing in order to keep records of taxes, laws, or trade Civilizations must have specialized workers that create a class system Civilizations must have complex institutions
like government & religion to keep order Closure Activity Now that we have defined civilization: Is the United States a civilization? Give evidence to support your answer.
THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS I. Fertile crescent II. Lasting contributions The discovery of farming during the Neolithic Revolution allowed nomadic people to settle into civilizations The worlds first civilizations
all began in river valleys The first civilization began in an area known as Mesopotamia Included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires
Mesopotamia means Thethe Tigris and Euphrates Rivers land between rivers & is flooded
per year, leaving often called the Fertileonce Crescent behindof fertile soil ideal for farming or as the Cradle Civilization
The first civilization developed in the Fertile Crescent: Sumer But, surrounding deserts & the lack of natural barriers attracted outsiders to Mesopotamia & made the Sumerians vulnerable to attack Advanced cities:
Sumerian city-states were protected by high walls At the city center was a temple called a ziggurat Specialized Workers: At the top of society were priests, and then kings In the middle were skilled
workers, like merchants At the bottom, were common farmers & slaves Religion: Sumerians & Babylonians were polytheistic The Hebrews in Palestine
were the 1st monotheistic faith in history (Judaism) The holy book of Judaism is the Torah; God gave Moses the Ten Commandments which serve as moral laws Government: Babylonian King Hammurabi
created the first legal code Hammurabis Code had 282 laws based on justice & retaliation (an eye for an eye) The code had different punishments for the various levels of society Writing:
Sumerians made the worlds 1st writing called cuneiform Phoenicians simplified cuneiform to a 22 letter alphabet Phoenician merchants spread the alphabet throughout the Mediterranean world The alphabet influenced
Greek, Latin, & English Technology: Sumerians inventions include the wheel, sail, plow, & bronze metalwork Closure Activity Develop a Hammurabis Code for
Limestone High School: Your code should include at least 5 laws and consequences Think about things that are important to keep order in a school CHAPTER 2 - EGYPT I.
II. TRAITS OF EGYPT LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS I. TRAITS OF EGYPT
Egypt began along the Nile River in North Africa Egypt was bordered on both sidesNile by Rivers desert The which
isolated annual floods & protected were predictable The Nile flooded
Egyptians from & provided fertile so predictably that outsiders soil
farming thefor Egyptians designed their calendar around it I. LASTING
CONTRIBUTIONS Advanced Cities: Cities developed along the Nile River in Upper Egypt &
Lower Egypt i. LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS Specialized Workers: ? i. LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS
Government : Pharaohs ruled Egypt as king-gods & were thought to control nature Egyptians constructed pyramids & elaborate tombs for the pharoahs
i. LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS Religion: Egyptians were polytheistic & believed the gods controlled all aspects of life i. LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS
Writing: Egyptian hieroglyphics was both pictograms & a phonetic alphabet Hieroglyphics were translated using the Rosetta Stone
i. LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS Technology: Egyptian ideas included a 365-day calendar, geometry, astronomy, & pyramids Class Activity #1 Overview: You & your team are members
of an ancient tribe known as Patrioti Working with your tribe, complete the following activities in order: Step 1: Collect at least 4 food tokens & 1 water token Step 2: Gather resources & build a temple to honor the food god Your grade will be based on completing these tasks & the creativity of your temple
Class Activity #2 New discovery: FARMING! Working with your tribe, complete the following activities in order: Step 1: Collect at least 4 food tokens & 1 water token Step 2: Gather resources & build a
temple to honor the food god Your grade will be based on completing these tasks & the creativity of your temple Debriefing Questions Discuss with your team & write down your answers to the following questions: What were your experiences like
during Round 1 of this activity? How did the discovery of farming change your experiences in Round 2? How do you think these activities relate to early human beings? What advantages do you think farming gave to early humans?
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