Chapter 12 theories of personality psychology fourth edition

Chapter 12 theories of personality psychology fourth edition

Chapter 12 theories of personality psychology fourth edition Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality There are some definite changes to yourself in the past 5 years (interests, opinions, attitudes, development, ways of reacting to certain situations) Similarities is what makes up your

personality Sum total of an individuals relatively consistent, organized, and unique reactions to the environment Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality Relatively Consistent- way we behave today is similar to way we behaved in the past and how we will behave in the future Organized- relate to each other and interact with each other Unique- no 2 people are exactly alike

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Development of Personality Based on four factors - Early Childhood - Influence of the home - Influence of birth order - Influence of society Other factors that influence personality: intellectual ability, heredity, environment Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Early Childhood

The early years of life are very important to the development of personality Even during the first few weeks of life, infants differ in their behavior (cry more, active/passive) During the first six months of life, behavior starts to become individualized as infant reacts to food, clothing, light/dark Through interactions with the environment, the infant is developing that complex pattern Personality patterns will often continue into the adult yearsBUT

the way in which these personality patterns are expressed may change. Experiences in later life can greatly alter personality. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Influence of the Home In America, the home plays a major role in the development of personality because basic foundations of personality are laid down early in life. Most of the childs early life is in the home Different home environment produce different personalities Some parents constantly tell their children what they must NOT do, rather than showing them what they should do

React by becoming rebellious or withdrawing from contacts with other people or living in a world of daydreams Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Some parents make all decisions for children while others allow their children to make decisions (clothes to wear, eat, etc) The child develops a personality that includes the experience of making decisions Affection in home is important for personality development (more open childhood) Studies show that children who experience a great deal of affection in their family relations tend to be responsible

and honest in their social relationship Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Influence of Birth Order Psychological studies have not shown that birth order establishes a biological effect on the kind of personality that is developed Birth order of children does alter the circumstances under which children are reared- thus a social effect

Study: Qualitative study that compared mothers care of first born with that of a 2nd born (at 3 months old) Results: 1) Mothers spent less time in social activities and care taking with their 2nd born child. 2) There was less maternal treatment toward the 2nd born child when that child was female and had an older sister 3) There was a little decrease in motherly attention for the male 2nd born who had an older sister Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Other ways in which the experiences differ of children born in different birth positions:

- Oldest child is the only child for some period of time. The 2nd born child is reared from birth with a sibling. Different circumstances do contribute to differing personality patterns -Older child in a 2 child family tends to be serious, shy, and orientated towards adults. The younger child is more cheerful, easy going and less studious than older sibling -Famous people are more likely to be first born - Larger percentage of first born children will go on to graduate college -Both male and female first born tend to be more socially conforming than later born children - First born females, when afraid, desire the company of others more strongly than do later born females Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Influence of Society A society is a large group of people who share common traits, customs or ways of behaving Children learn about their society first through home life, then as they grow older, they have more and more social contacts outside the home Their personality development is shaped by their contacts in school,

in religious activities, and in playing with children Through home and social contacts, they gradually learn what is expected of them as members of society in which they live The social group in which children are reared will help them learn ways of behaving that are acceptable by their society (personality = social contacts, ie- gangs) Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Involved in Forming Personality Theories Developing theories of Personality - Many psychologists in early 1900s were concerned with the lab experiments, personality

theorists were concerned with the adjustment of the whole person - Personality theorists were interested in what caused personal problems and how people could adjust better - Early personality theorists emphasized motivation- the why of behavior Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. To form a theory of personality, Psychologists used: - Molecular Approach- explaining behavior in terms of tiny, very specific units (i.enerve impulses) - Molar Approach- which is concerned with

larger, more general units of behavior (all things you do when your hungry) Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Personality theorists differ in their general approach to explain behavior in these factors: 1- role of goals 2- effects of rewards/punishments 3- role of learning 4- influence of heredity 5- importance of early childhood experiences 6- how unique behavior is 7- role of environment Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Judging Personality Theories: Once a personality theory is developed, the next step is to evaluate it: 1. A theory should be clearly and precisely stated so that others understand the ideas, terms, and principles involved 2. A theory can be judged on how closely it fits the data (Can it be measured and observed?) 3. A theory must be able to predict behavior accurately 4. We can judge a theory by how much research it produces Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Personality LO 12.1 Personality from Various Perspectives Personality: the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave Character: value judgments made about a persons moral and ethical behavior Temperament: the enduring characteristics with which each person is born Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Four Perspectives in Study of Personality LO 12.1 Personality from Various Perspectives AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Psychodynamic perspective Behaviorist perspective Humanistic perspective Trait perspective

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sigmund Freud LO 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Freud was the founder of the psychoanalytic movement in psychology Europe during the Victorian Age men were supposedly unable to control their animal desires; a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort,

leaving his virtuous wife untouched women were not supposed to have sexual urges Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Divisions of Consciousness 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Preconscious mind: level of the mind in which information is available but not currently conscious Conscious mind: level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and

perceptions Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Divisions of Consciousness 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Unconscious mind: level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness are kept

can be revealed in dreams and Freudian slips of the tongue Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 12.1 Freuds Conception of the Personality This iceberg represents the three levels of the mind. The part of the iceberg visible above the surface is the conscious mind. Just below the surface is the preconscious mind, everything that is not yet part of the conscious mind. Hidden deep below the surface is the unconscious mind, feelings, memories, thoughts, and urges that cannot be easily brought into consciousness. While two of the three parts of the personality (ego and superego) exist at all three levels of awareness, the id is completely in the unconscious mind. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Freuds Theory: Parts of Personality 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Id: part of the personality present at birth; completely unconscious pleasure principle: principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Parts of Personality

12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Ego: part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality; mostly conscious, rational, and logical reality principle: principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only in ways that will not result in negative consequences Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Parts of Personality

12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Superego: part of the personality that acts as a moral center conscience: part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the ego ideal Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Defense Mechanisms 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Psychological defense mechanisms: unconscious distortions of a persons perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety Denial: the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Defense Mechanisms 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Repression: the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind Rationalization: the person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Defense Mechanisms LO 12.2 Freuds Historical Views of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Projection: unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Defense Mechanisms LO 12.2 Freuds Historical Views of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Reaction formation: the person forms an emotional or behavioral reaction opposite to the way he or she really feels in order to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others Displacement: redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Defense Mechanisms LO 12.2 Freuds Historical Views of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Regression: the person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations Identification: the person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Defense Mechanisms LO 12.2 Freuds Historical Views of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Compensation (substitution): the person makes up for deficiencies in one area by becoming superior in another area Sublimation: channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Psychosexual stages: five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child Fixation: if the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual

stage, it will result in personality traits and behaviors associated with that earlier stage Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Oral stage: first stage, occurring in the first 18 months of life, in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the

primary conflict; id dominated Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Anal stage: second stage, occurring between about 18 and 36 months (3 years) of age; the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict; ego

develops anal expulsive personality: a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile anal retentive personality: a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development 12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors

Phallic stage: third stage, occurring from about three to six years of age; the child discovers sexual feelings; superego develops Castration anxiety and penis envy Oedipus complex: situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent Electra complex: a similar process for girls Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development

12.2 Freuds View of the Mind, and Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Latency stage: fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways Genital stage: during and after puberty, sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neo-Freudians LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Neo-Freudians: followers of Freud who developed their own competing theories of psychoanalysis Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neo-Freudians LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Jung Developed a theory including both a personal and a collective unconscious personal unconscious: Jungs name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud collective unconscious: the memories shared by all members of the human species archetypes: collective, universal human memories Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Jung also believed that our personalities include 2 major attitudes: introversion and extroversion 1- Introversion- people respond mainly to internally oriented stimuli such as their own ideas and inner thoughts. Traits considered characteristics of introversion are: feeling hurt easily, daydreaming frequently, blushing often, keeping in background on social occasions, suffering from stage fright, worrying over possible misfortune, etc 2- Extroversion- people respond mainly to external stimuli, such as social situations and ideas from others. Traits considered: Not feeling hurt easily, seldom day dreaming, life of the party, sociable, making friends easily, etc Both personalities normally exist within a person, while one is more

dominant. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neo-Freudians: Alder LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Adler Proposed that feelings of inferiority are the driving force behind personality Motivated by social interests Focused on Importance of the conscious over the unconscious Creative self- what makes people strive toward complete fulfillment Create goals to be reached and means of reaching them

Developed birth order theory firstborn children feel inferior to younger children who receive attention; become overachievers middle children feel superior to dethroned older children, as well as younger children; tend to be very competitive younger children feel inferior because they dont have the freedom or responsibility of older children Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neo-Freudians: Horney LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors

Horney Developed a theory based on basic anxiety; rejected the concept of penis envy basic anxiety: anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults neurotic personalities: the result of less-secure upbringings and paired with maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Neo-Freudians: Erikson LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory

AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Erikson Developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships, covering the entire life span Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Modern Psychoanalytic Theory LO 12.3 Neo-Freudians and Modern Psychodynamic Theory AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality

Current research has found support for: defense mechanisms the concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior Other Freudian concepts cannot be scientifically researched Freud based diagnosis on interpretation of dreams and free association Plus, his theories are based on information from a small demographic Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Behaviorist View

LO 12.4 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Explanations of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Behaviorists define personality as a set of learned responses or habits habit: well-learned response that has become automatic Investigate the role of learning in the development of personality Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Social Cognitive View

LO 12.4 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Explanations of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Social cognitive learning theorists emphasize the importance of: the influences of other peoples behavior the influence of a persons own expectancies on learning Social cognitive view: learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Reciprocal Determinism LO 12.4 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Explanations of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Reciprocal determinism: Banduras explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior Self-efficacy: an individuals perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (not the same as

self-esteem) Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 12.2 Reciprocal Determinism In Banduras model of reciprocal determinism, three factors influence behavior: the environment, which consists of the physical surroundings and the potential for reinforcement; the person (personal/cognitive characteristics that have been rewarded in the past); and the behavior itself, which may or may not be reinforced at this particular time and place. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Behaviorism and Personality

LO 12.4 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Explanations of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Rotters Social Learning Theory locus of control expectancy Behaviorism as an explanation of the formation of personality has its limitations But the social cognitive view does take mental processes and social influences into account, and unlike psychoanalysis, concepts in the theory can be scientifically tested Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Humanistic Theories of Personality LO 12.5 How Humanists Explain Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Humanistic perspective: the third force in psychology focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice developed as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Rogerss Theory of Personality LO 12.5 How Humanists Explain Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Self-actualizing tendency: the striving to fulfill ones innate capacities and capabilities Self-concept: the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in ones life

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Rogerss Theory of Personality LO 12.5 How Humanists Explain Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Real self: ones perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities Ideal self: ones perception of whom one should be or would like to be Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 12.3 Real and Ideal Selves According to Rogers, the self-concept includes the real self and the ideal self. The real self is a persons actual perception of traits and abilities, whereas the ideal self is the perception of what a person would like to be or thinks he or she should be. When the ideal self and the real self are very similar (matching), the person experiences harmony and contentment. When there is a mismatch between the two selves, the person experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic behavior. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Rogerss Theory of Personality LO 12.5 How Humanists Explain Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors

Positive regard: warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in ones life unconditional positive regard: positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached conditional positive regard: positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Rogerss Theory of Personality

LO 12.5 How Humanists Explain Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Fully functioning person: a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings Is self-actualizing, experiencing a match between real and ideal self, and receiving unconditional positive regard Current thought on the humanistic perspective picture is a little too rosy very difficult to test scientifically connection to positive psychology Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories of Personality LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Trait theories: theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior trait: a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving Allport first developed a list of about 200

traits; he believed that these traits were part of the nervous system Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories of Personality LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Cattell reduced the number of traits to between sixteen and twenty-three with a computer method called factor analysis developed the 16PF test

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories of Personality LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Surface traits: aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person Source traits: the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality example: introversion

dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 12.4 Cattells Self-Report Inventory The personality profiles of individuals working in various occupations may be characterized by using such tools as Cattells 16PF self-report inventory. For example, airline pilots versus writers. Airline pilots, when compared to writers, tend to be more conscientious, relaxed, self-assured, and far less sensitive. Writers, on the other hand, were more imaginative and better able to think abstractly. Based on Cattell (1973). Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Big Five Theory

LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality/Identify Key Contributors Five-factor model (Big Five): describes five basic trait dimensions (Botwin & Buss, 1989: Jang et al., 1998; McCrae & Costa, 1996): 1. openness: willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences 2. conscientiousness: the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability 3. extraversion: ones need to be with other people extraverts: people who are outgoing and sociable introverts: people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Big Five Theory LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Five-Factor Model (Big Five) (contd) 4. agreeableness: the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant 5. neuroticism: degree of emotional instability or stability

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories Today LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Trait-situation interaction: the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Trait Theories Today LO 12.6 The Trait Perspective of Personality AP: Major Theories to Explain Personality Cross-cultural research has found support for the five-factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures future research will explore the degree to which childrearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Biology and Personality LO 12.7 Biology, Heredity, and Cultural Roles in Personality Behavioral genetics: the study of the relationship between heredity and personality twin and adoption studies have found support for a genetic influence on many personality traits Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Jim Twins LO 12.7 Biology, Heredity, and Cultural Roles in Personality James Arthur Springer and James Edward Lewis, otherwise known as the Jim twins were separated shortly after birth and reunited at age thirty-nine; they exhibited many similarities in personality and personal habits Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 12.5 Personalities of Identical and Fraternal Twins Identical and fraternal twins differ in the way they express the Big Five personality factors. In a recent study, data from 696 twin pairs suggest identical twins have a correlation of about 45 percent for self-ratings across each of the Big Five factor domains, whereas fraternal twins have a correlation of about 22 percent. These findings give support to the idea that some aspects of personality are genetically based. Based on: Kandler, et al. (2010) Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Biology and Personality LO 12.7 Biology, Heredity, and Cultural Roles in Personality Heritability: how much some trait within a population can be attributed to genetic

influences, and the extent individual genetic variation impacts differences in observed behavior Studies suggest that personality traits are about 25 to 50 percent inherited Environmental factors account for about half of the variation in personality traits Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cultural Personality LO 12.7 Biology, Heredity, and Cultural Roles in Personality AP: How Cultural Context Affects Personality Development

Four basic dimensions of personality along which cultures may vary: individualism/collectivism power distance masculinity/femininity uncertainty avoidance Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Personality LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Personality: Interviews LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality Interview: personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion halo effect: tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to

influence the assessments of the clients behavior and statements Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Projective tests: personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Rorschach inkblot test: projective test that uses ten inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective test that uses twenty pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 12.6 Rorschach Inkblot Example A facsimile of a Rorschach inkblot. A person being tested is asked to tell the interviewer what he or she sees in an inkblot similar to the one shown. Answers are neither right nor wrong but may reveal unconscious concerns. What do you see in this inkblot? Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 12.7 Thematic Apperception Test Example A sample from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). When you look at this picture, what story does it suggest to you? Who is the person? Why is he climbing a rope? Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality: Projective Tests LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Problems with projective tests Subjective: concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular persons perception and may be influenced by biases, prejudice, and personal experiences With no standard grading scales, projective tests are low in reliability and validity Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality: Behavioral Assessments LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Direct observation: the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day behavior in either a clinical or natural setting Rating scale: a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale Frequency count: assessment in which the frequency of a particular behavior is counted Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality: Behavioral Assessments LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Problems with behavioral assessments: Observer effect Observer bias Lack of control Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring Personality: Personality Inventory LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality

AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Personality inventory: paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test NEO-PI: based on the five-factor model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: based on Jungs theory of personality types MMPI-2 - designed to detect abnormal behavior or thinking patterns in personality Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Measuring Personality: Personality Inventory LO 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Measures of Personality AP: Research Methods for Investigating Personality/Identify and Evaluate Assessment Strategies Evaluating personality inventories More objective and reliable than projective tests, results are scored via computer to eliminate observer bias and bias of interpretation Validity scales are included to indicate whether a person is responding honestly But validity scales are not perfect Questions may be interpreted differently by individuals, subject to cultural influence Some people may not take the test carefully

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Bases of the Big Five LO 12.9 Biological Bases of the Big Five Theory of Personality Brain structure differences associated with some aspects of the Big Five dimensions of personality have been identified using structural MRI Areas of the brain associated with extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness have been found No areas associated with openness have been found yet

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White 2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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