Skill Development at its Best Organizational Behavior BBA

Skill Development at its Best Organizational Behavior BBA & MBA Lecture 131415 Personality and Values Course Lecturer: Farhan Mir Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Role of Values and Personality I am driven by fear of failure. It is a strong motivator for me. Dennis Manning, CEO of Guardian Life Insurance C

Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best What Is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, measurable traits a person exhibits Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals

behavior Personality Personality Determinants Determinants Heredity Heredity Environment Environment Situation Situation Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best

What is Personality? The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. - Gordon Allport The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits Measuring Personality Helpful in hiring decisions Most common method: self-reporting surveys Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality often better predictors Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Personality Determinants

Heredity Factors determined at conception: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and bio-rhythms This Heredity Approach argues that genes are the source of personality Twin studies: raised apart but very similar personalities There is some personality change over long time periods Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Personality Traits

Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behavior The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important the trait. Two dominant frameworks used to describe personality: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Big Five Model Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Most widely used instrument in the world.

Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of 16 possible personality types, such as ENTJ. Sociable and Assertive Introverted (I) Extroverted (E) Practical and Orderly Intuitive (N)

Sensing (S) Use Reason and Logic Thinking (T) Want Order & Structure Quiet and Shy Judging (J) Unconscious

Processes Feeling (F) Uses Values & Emotions Perceiving (P) Flexible and Spontaneous Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best

The Types and Their Uses Each of the sixteen possible combinations has a name, for instance: Visionaries (INTJ) original, stubborn, and driven Organizers (ESTJ) realistic, logical, analytical, and businesslike Conceptualizer (ENTP) entrepreneurial, innovative, individualistic, and resourceful Research results on validity mixed MBTI is a good tool for self-awareness and counseling. Should not be used as a selection test for job candidates. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions

Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and

insecure under stress (negative) Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior? Research has shown this to be a better framework. Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to higher job performance: Highly conscientious people develop more job knowledge,

exert greater effort, and have better performance. Other Big Five Traits also have implications for work. Emotional stability is related to job satisfaction. Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and have good social skills. Open people are more creative and can be good leaders. Agreeable people are good in social settings. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Measuring Personality Personality Is Measured by: Self-Report Surveys Observer-Rating Surveys Projective Measures

Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB Core Self-Evaluation The degree to which people like or dislike themselves Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance Machiavellianism A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means High Machs are manipulative, win more often, and persuade more than

they are persuaded. Flourish when: Have direct interaction Work with minimal rules and regulations Emotions distract others Narcissism An arrogant, entitled, self-important person who needs excessive admiration Less effective in their jobs Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best More Relevant Personality Traits Self-Monitoring The ability to adjust behavior to meet external, situational factors. High monitors conform more and are more likely to become leaders.

Risk Taking The willingness to take chances. May be best to align propensities with job requirements. Risk takers make faster decisions with less information. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Even More Relevant Personality Traits Type A Personality Aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less time

Impatient: always moving, walking, and eating rapidly Strive to think or do two or more things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Obsessed with achievement numbers Prized in North America but quality of the work is low Type B people are the complete opposite Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres to completion Creates positive change in the environment Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best

Values Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable How to live life properly. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Importance of Values Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors Influence our perception of the world around us Represent interpretations of right and wrong

Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Generational Values Veterans Entered Workforce 1950-1964 Approximate Current Age 65+

Boomers 1965-1985 40-60s Xers 1985-2000 20-40s Nexters 2000-Present Under 30

Cohort Dominant Work Values Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Confident, financial success, selfreliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships 4-20 Copyright [email protected]

Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best What the Managers should do? Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Relationships Among Personality Types The closer the occupational fields, the more

compatible. The further apart the fields, the more dissimilar. Need to match personality type with occupation. Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, 1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Still Linking Personality to the Workplace

In addition to matching the individuals personality to the job, managers are also concerned with: Person-Organization Fit: The employees personality must fit with the organizational culture. People are attracted to organizations that match their values. Those who match are most likely to be selected. Mismatches will result in turnover. Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the organizational culture. Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best

Implications Personality Do frameworks like Big Five transfer across cultures? Yes, but the frequency of type in the culture may vary. Better in individualistic than collectivist cultures. Summary Summary and and Managerial Managerial Implications Implications Personality Screen for the Big Five trait of conscientiousness Take into account the situational factors as well MBTI can help with training and development Copyright [email protected]

Skill Development at its Best Implications Values Values differ across cultures. Hofstedes Framework for assessing culture five value dimensions: Power distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity

Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4-27 Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Hofstedes Framework: Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

High distance Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/ wealth and those without status/wealth See Exhibit 4-6 4-28 Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Hofstedes Framework: Individualism Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look

after them and protect them 4-29 Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Hofstedes Framework: Masculinity Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women

4-30 Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Hofstedes Framework: Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces them. 4-31

Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best Hofstedes Framework: Time Orientation Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here-and-now 4-32 Copyright [email protected] Skill Development at its Best

Chapter Check-up: Values In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with one another. Country J, according to Hofstedes Framework, is probably low on what dimension? Collectivism Lon-term Orientation Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance How would a college or university in Country J differ from your college or university? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a neighbor. Copyright [email protected]

Skill Development at its Best Copyright [email protected]

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