Beginnings of English America European Rivals France and

Beginnings of English America European Rivals  France and

Beginnings of English America European Rivals France and England claimed areas of North America due to voyages of Verrazano and John Cabot Why did Spain dominate the New World? Spain experienced relative domestic tranquility while France and England suffered political and religious conflict Spain controlled areas best suited for quick returns Spain dominated Europe under Charles V

European Rivals Spanish peak and decline under Philip II Break-up of Holy Roman Empire with ascension of Philip II Corruption of Spanish court Spanish involvement in religious wars = debt Failure of the Spanish Armada in

1588 1588 The year that changed the world Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation was a mix of different movements Religious movement led by Martin Luther and John Calvin

Political movement to escape power of the Catholic Church Economic movement with Protestant work ethic as core value Reformation English Beginnings English joint-stock companies financed

expeditions for Northwest Passage Efforts to establish English colonies at Newfoundland in 1583 (Sir Humphrey Gilbert) and Roanoke in 1585 (Sir Walter Raleigh) Roanoke English Beginnings

America seen as refuge for surplus population Enclosure Movement Sturdy Beggars Half of English population lived below poverty line Jobless had no rights could be whipped, branded, forced into army, or hanged

English Beginnings New World seen as Utopia Liberty equated with land ownership working for wages was servitude New World opportunity & land Primogeniture English Beginnings Though England had smaller population than

Spain & France more English migrated to New World Destinations Ireland, Caribbean, and American colonies By mid 18th century migration to America outpaced all others

Reading Indentured Servitude Virginia Jamestown Founded in 1607 Impetus for settlement was profit

Virginia Powhatan Confederacy- 32 tribes Strategic importance of Jamestown Treasure versus farming John Smith leadership Deterioration of relations with Indians could not support

Virginia The starving time Only 65 settlers survived New governor Lord De La Warr 250 new settlers, and supplies arrived New laws: church, sodomy, adultery

Virginia Tobacco West Indies transplants James I Marriage of Pocahontas & John Rolfe Shipment of women, poor and orphans Virginia

Tobacco labor intensive crop Indentured servitude Crimps 1619 First slaves Comparable service and treatment Slavery preferred docile, cheaper, could not runaway

Virginia Self-government House of Burgesses Of 4,000 settlers 1618-1622 barely survived Only success was tobacco

success caused expansion Virginia Indian Uprising of 1622 English policy of separating communities made them easier to attack Several settlements destroyed / 350 colonists killed War bankrupted the Virginia

Company turned over to crown During companys tenure of 7,289 total settlers, 6,040 died or returned to England Virginia After Indian war, expeditions sent out 3x year to kill Indians Treaty created demarcation line

War in 1644-1646 banished Indians from the peninsula altogether Virginia Attempts by the crown to make Jamestowns economy more diverse were fruitless Efforts to create towns also failed due to plantation economy Colonists created English-style

counties with sheriff, constable, coroner, etc Virginia Increasing reliance on slavery Poor whites and new immigrants forced to move westward Lack of solid middle class rise of aristocracy By middle of 1600s 100 families

controlled colonys wealth and power Lure of Land Land was used to attract settlers but land worthless without labor Virginia Headright System Each head entering the colony issued a right to any 50 acres of unoccupied land To receive title to the land holders had to mark boundaries,

plant a crop, and construct a dwelling Quitrents were later demanded but they were resented and difficult to collect Maryland Proprietary colony personal property? George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) given grant by Charles I Wanted Maryland as haven for

Catholics Colony soon had Protestant majority due to labor and immigrants from other colonies Maryland Religious disputes broke out (due to English Civil War) resulting in Toleration Act of 1649

All religions including Quakers tolerated Little to no conflict with Indians Maryland Major forms of labor Indentured Convict Free-Willers recruited by crimps

Disease especially malaria common over 40 percent of servants died before contract Many freed servants could not get land due to surveying and registration fees Maryland Women Fewer numbers allowed pick of

suitors Female indentured servants often had contracts bought out High mortality rate only 1/3 of marriages lasted longer than ten years 20 percent of children orphaned by age 12 Maryland

Climate major factor in disease Seasonal malaria Dysentery from polluted waters in summer Life expectancy was 45 or lower Most children lost at least one parent before reaching maturity Remarriage common widows could easily remarry

Purification Queen Mary (Bloody Mary) Elizabeth I Anglican Church The Middle Road Radical Protestants (Puritans) wanted the Church purified believed it was still too Catholic Puritans even more unhappy

under James I Plymouth Colony 19 November 1620 Second English foothold in New World Private joint-stock company The Puritans and the Separatists Scrooby

Holland Grant from King James I Plymouth Colony Only 41 out of 102 colonists were Pilgrims Landed at Cape Cod Virginia was their patent Mayflower Compact Indians and disease

Developed successful forest diplomacy December 20 landing at Plymouth harbor Plymouth Colony Differences with Jamestown Families Purpose

Teamwork Plymouth Colony Indian relations Samoset and Squanto Engagement in regional politics Alliance with Wampanoag versus Narragansett Trade presence of fishing stations

Problems with Squanto Jamestown attack = construction of fort Plymouth Colony Colony Business William Bradford Investors and fur trade 1623- move to privatization versus collectivism (incentive)

1624- population at 180 crime? Arrival of Massachusetts Bay Colony demand for crops Plymouth Colony Problems in Paradise 1630- population of 300 Expansion versus religious ties

Plymouth un-influential Lack of recruits Massachusetts Bay Colony Migrations due to crises King Charles I and Wm Laud The Great Migration of 1630s Religious persecution Economic depression Unemployment

Poor harvests William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 Endecott Salem

Boston John Winthrop Massachusetts Bay Colony Colony structure Each town built around a church and congregation Political participation restricted to church members only Land distributed giving each

House, garden, and orchard Farmland, woodland, pasture, and meadow Other land held in common Massachusetts Bay Colony Status Townships based on quasi-feudal structure

Class conscious church pews Undemocratic Discriminatory Uniformity rewarded individualism squashed Massachusetts Bay Colony Dissension = new colony

No tolerance for or dilution of ideals strict orthodoxy Pull of individualism Without a threat, Puritan ideology began to unravel Massachusetts Bay Colony City Upon a Hill versus expansion "For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall shame the

faces of many of God's worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses . . ." - John Winthrop, aboard the Arbella, 1630 Clip- Pilgrims & Puritans Troublemakers Roger Williams Radical Negotiated with Indians and

founded Providence Gained charter founded Rhode Island colony Tolerated all religions separation of church and state Troublemakers Quakers Anne Hutchison Outspoken critic of Puritan

doctrine Put on trial for defaming the clergy Cast out of Massachusetts Moved to Rhode Island Other New England Colonies Connecticut Indians perished along Connecticut River due to disease Puritans moved in

Four-way struggle between Puritans, Pilgrims, Dutch, and Indians Puritan treatment of Indians Pilgrims give up claim on land Other New England Colonies 1637 Pequot massacre Safety from Indians brought new government separate from Massachusetts

New England Confederation 1643 Allied Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven Maine and Rhode Island excluded for religious views

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