Mars Sample Return (MSR) E2E-iSAG: Introduction and Initial

Mars Sample Return (MSR) E2E-iSAG: Introduction and Initial

Mars Sample Return (MSR) E2E-iSAG: Introduction and Initial Input MEPAG E2E-iSAG Scott McLennan and Mark Sephton, co-chairs Sep 30, 2010 Pre-decisional: for discussion purposes only 1 Context NASA and ESA considering dual rover mission for 2018. In response to past recommendations and findings, it would be strategically important to include sample caching this could be extremely valuable to a potential future effort to return samples. Once cached properly, samples would be stable indefinitely NRCs Decadal Survey expected to release its recommendations about March 1, 2011; expected to comment on 2018 and MSR. Although DS report, and NASAs reaction to it, are pending, relationship of 2018 to returned sample science still needs to be thought through: Key assets for 2018 landing site selection aging; time is of the essence If we decide to proceed on 2018, timeline before requirements definition (e.g., SDT) is short Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision

2 Introduction 1.Science that would be derived from the overall campaign, culminating in the study of the returned samples, and Focus of this study Scientific objectives of the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Campaign can be thought of in two categories: 2.Science that would be accomplished by each mission at Mars, in support of the campaign goals, by means of instruments that might be present on the individual flight elements. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 3 The MSR End-to-End study (E2E) 1. Propose reference campaign-level MSR science objectives and priorities 2. Understand derived implications of these objectives and priorities: a) Kinds of samples required/desired b) Requirements for sample acquisition and handling

c) Draft site selection criteria, and apply them to Mars to create some reference landing sites d) Capabilities required for adequate in situ characterization needed to support sample selection Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 4 The Team Mark Sephton Scott McLennan Imperial College, London, UK SUNY Stony Brook, NY Organics, ExoMars Sedimentology, geochemistry Co-I MER Carl Allen Abby Allwood Roberto Barbieri Penny Boston Mike Carr Monica Grady John Grant Chris Herd Beda Hofmann Penny King Nicolas Mangold Gian Gabriele Ori

Angelo Pio Rossi Jouko Raitala Franois Raulin Steve Ruff Barb Sherwood-L. Steve Symes Mark Thiemens JSC, Houston, TX JPL, Pasadena, CA Univ. Bologna, IT NM Inst. Mining & Tech, NM USGS (ret.), CA Open Univ. UK Smithsonian, DC Univ. Alberta, CAN Nat. Hist. Museum, Bern, CH Univ. New Mexico Univ. Nantes, FR IRSPS, Pescara, IT Jacobs Univ. Bremen, DH Univ. Oulu, FI Univ. Paris 12, FR Arizona State Univ. Univ. Toronto, CAN Univ. Tennessee UC San Diego Petrology, sample curation, Mars surface Field Astrobio., early life, liason MAX-C Astrobiology, paleontology, evaporites

Cave geology/biology, member PSS Mars geology, water on Mars Mars meteorites, isotop., sample curation Geophys., landing sites, MER, MRO Petrology, sample curation Geomicrobiology, ExoMars (Deputy CLUPI) Petrology, geochemistry, MSL Geology, spetroscopy MEX, MSL Mars geology, sedimentology, MEX, MRO Planetary geology, HRSC, SHARAD Mars surface, tectonics, HRSC Astrobio., extraterrestrial material, Deputy MOMA MER operations, spectral geology, MGS, MER Astrobology, stable isotopes REE, geocronology, member CAPTEM Gas geochemistry Eng. Rep. Mike Wilson Peter Falkner ESA JPL Advanced mission planning, MSR Advanced mission planning, MSR Ex-officio Dave Beaty Mars Program Off., JPL

Liason to MEPAG, cat herder Co-Chair Science Members Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 5 Background: MEPAGs recent planning on MSR science Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 6 MEPAGs Recent Thinking re: MSR 2008: ND-SAG Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 7 Scientific Objectives for MSR 11 candidate objectives identified.

KEY OBSERVATION: No single site on Mars would support all objectives Every site on Mars would support some Dependency between objectives and landing site Ref. Goal 1 I 2 I 3 III 4 III 5 III 6 III Draft Objective

Characterize the reservoirs of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements with which they have interacted, in chemical, mineralogical, isotopic and spatial detail down to the submicron level, in order to document any processes that can sustain habitable environments, both today and in the past. Assess the evidence for pre-biotic processes and/or life at one location by characterizing any signatures of these phenomena in the form of organic molecular structures, biominerals, isotopic compositions, morphology, and their geologic contexts. Interpret the conditions of water/rock interactions through the study of their mineral products. Constrain the absolute ages of martian geologic processes, including sedimentation, diagenesis, volcanism/plutonism, regolith formation, hydrothermal alteration, weathering, and cratering Understand paleoclimates, paleoenvironments, and fluid histories by characterizing the clastic and chemical components, depositional processes, and post-depositional histories of sedimentary sequences. Constrain the mechanisms and determine the characteristics of early planetary differentiation and the subsequent evolution of the core, mantle, and crust Nickname Relative Priority Habitability H Pre-biotic,

life H water/ rock H Geochrono logy H Sedimenta ry record H Planetary evolution M 7 III 8 IV

9 I 10 II 11 II Understand how the regolith is formed and modified and how it differs from Regolith place to place. Substantiate and quantify the risks to future human explorers through Risks to characterization of biohazards, material toxicity, and dust/granular human materials, as well as demonstrate the potential utilization of in-situ explorers resources to aid in establishing a human presence. For the present-day Martian surface and accessible shallow subsurface environments, determine the state of oxidation as a function of depth, permeability, and other factors in order to interpret photochemical processes in the atmosphere, the rates and pathways of chemical weathering, and the potential to preserve chemical signatures of extant life Oxidation and pre-biotic chemistry. Utilize precise isotopic measurements of martian volatiles in both atmosphere and solids to interpret the atmosphere's starting composition,

the rates and processes of atmospheric loss and atmospheric gain from Gas interior degassing and/or late-stage accretion, and atmospheric exchange Chemistry with surface condensed species. Determine the relationship between climate-modulated polar deposits, their age, geochemistry, conditions of formation and evolution through detailed examination of the composition of water, CO2, and dust constituents, isotopic ratios, and detailed stratigraphy of the upper layers of the surface. Polar Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision M M M M M 8 MSR: What Kinds of Samples? Irvine ROCKS Spirit, 01-12-06;

sol 721 By far most important, given the proposed objectives. Multiple diverse samples essential. REGOLITH/ DUST At least one relatively large sample, preferably also additional smaller samples. ATMOSPHERIC GAS One good sample. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 9 The Concept of Sample Suites ND-SAG FINDING. MSR would have its greatest value if the samples were organized into suites of samples that represent the diversity of the products of various planetary processes. Similarities and differences between samples in a suite can be as important as the absolute characterization of a single sample

The minimum number for a suite of samples is thought to be 5-8 samples. Examples: Sampling several rock layers in a stratigraphic sequence, sampling along a hydrothermal alteration gradient, sampling both ordinary regolith and local variations (e.g., salts?) in an area. ND-SAG FINDING. The collection of suites of rocks requires mobility, the capability to assess the range of variation, and the ability to select samples that span the variation. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 10 Rock Sample Suites: Sedimentary Burns Cliff Stratigraphic geochemical variation interpreted as diagenetic redistribution of salts and is central to the water question. Could not be recognized with 1-2 samples. Endurance Crater, July 19, 2004 (Opportunity Sol 173) top Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision bottom Clark et al., 2005 (EPSL) 11

Sample Size: Rock Samples Example: meteorite QUE-94201 (mass = 12.02 g) QUE-94201 Image courtesy Kevin Righter Subdivided into over 60 individual samples of some kind or another. EXAMPLE: 1 gram chip made 5 thin sections used by by 14 investigators. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 12 Sample Packaging & Labeling UNACCEPTABLE 1. Airtight encapsulation for samples with hydrated minerals and/or volatile organics (~2/3 of total) 2. Regolith/dust samples must not commingle Samples must be uniquely mixed 3. Samples identifiable for field relationships Rock sample pulverized

ACCEPTABLE UNACCEPTABLE Rock fractured Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision Impact test, June 8, 2000 (max. dynamic load ~ 3400 g, avg. ~2290 g). 10 samples of basalt and chalk in separate sample cache tubes with tight-fitting Teflon caps. Many of the teflon caps came off as a result of the 13 MEPAGs Recent Thinking re: MSR 2008: 2009: ND-SAG MRRSAG (MAX-C) Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 14 Findings Related to Potential Sample Return MEASUREMENTS NEEDED FOR SAMPLE SELECTION: REVISIT VS. NEW SITE FINDING: The capabilities needed to do scientific sample selection, acquisition, and documentation for potential return to Earth would be the same whether the rover would be sent to an area that has been previously visited, or to a

new unexplored site. What would be needed Ability to locate samples Ability to determine fine rock textures (grain size, crystal morphology), detailed context Ability to differentiate rock types, effects of different natural processes Ability to detect organic carbon Ability to remove weathered or dust-coated surface and see unweathered rock Measurement MRR-SAG New Prev site site Color stereo imagery Microscopic imagery YES YES YES YES Mineralogy Bulk elemental abundance Organic carbon detection

Abrasion tool YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES From MRR-SAG: Reducing payload would limit the ability to select or document samples during collection and greatly increase science risk. 15 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision Findings Related to Potential Sample Return LANDING SITES FINDING: There are many candidate sites of high potential interest for a future sample return beyond those previously visited or to be visited by MSL. Using MSR prioritization criteria, additional sites of high potential priority have been recognized

NRC: Astrobiology Strategy for Mars: Several additional kinds of sites of high interest to astrobiology for a potential future return of samples were noted by the NRC (2007). Community-generated. At recent Mars-related conferences (LPSC, EPSC, AGU, EGU, AbSciCon, GSA, etc.), the global Mars science community has presented many additional sites and site-related astrobiology hypotheses. 16 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision Findings Related to Potential Sample Return RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IN SITU SCIENCE AND SAMPLE RETURN Kinds of rocks that would need to be interrogated to achieve proposed in situ objectives are a class of samples that would also be of crucial interest for potential sample return. Therefore: MAJOR FINDING: The instruments needed to achieve the proposed in situ objectives are the same instruments needed to select samples for potential return to Earth, and to document their context. Because of these compelling commonalities, it makes sense to merge these two purposes into one mission. 17 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision MEPAGs recent

thinking re: MSR 2008: 2009: ND-SAG MRRSAG 2010: 2R-iSAG (MAX-C/ (MAX-C) ExoMars) Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 18 2RiSAG-Proposed PRIMARY SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES, 2018 DUAL-ROVER MISSION Proposed Common Scientific Objectives 1. At a site interpreted to represent an environment with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures a) Evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions; b) Search for possible signs of past life 2. Collect, document, and package in a suitable manner a set of samples sufficient to achieve the proposed scientific objectives of the potential future sample return mission. Proposed Separate Scientific Objectives ExoMars Rover 3. Characterize the water

/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface (0-2 m depth) 4. Search for signs of present life Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision MAX-C Rover 5. Characterize potential for preservation of biotic/ prebiotic signatures 6. Determine the geological variability (incl. lithology, mineralogy, texture) of the landing site at scales from kms to 10 m, interpret the genetic processes. 19 The E2E Study 2009: 2008: ND-SAG MRRSAG 2010: 2R-iSAG (MAX-C/ (MAX-C) ExoMars) Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 2011: E2EiSAG

20 Starting Assumptions 1. MSR Campaign Science Objectives. Build from past reports of NRC and MEPAG. 2. MSR campaign would consist of three flight elements, each of which must have a controlled appetite in areas such as mission instrumentation and sample preservation. 3. Following sample acquisition functionality available to MSR campaign (note that these are planning assumptions, not decisions): At least 20 encapsulated surface or subsurface samples of ~10 grams each, to be collected from a mobile platform, At least 1 regolith sample collected from the immediate vicinity of the MSR lander by a deck- or body-mounted sampling system. One atmospheric gas sample collected into a valved, pressurized container. The combination of volume and pressure is TBD. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 21 Requested Tasks -1 TASK 1. MSR Campaign Science Objectives. Consolidate and prioritize previously proposed campaign-level science objectives. Particular detail is required in areas that would affect proposed 2018 sampling mission. TASK 2. Derived Criteria. Map MSR campaign science objectives to specific requirements regarding: 1) sample acquisition and handling and 2) site selection criteria. Specific points to consider are: a) Samples: i. Priorities for sampling different rock types

ii. Value of ExoMars subsurface sample for inclusion in sample cache iii. Nature and priority of regolith samples iv. Nature and priority of gas samples Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 22 Requested Tasks - 2 b) Instrumentation: Minimum requirements for in situ characterization needed to support sample selection. c) Landing Site Criteria: Threshold landing site science attributes (required for any site to be considered) and qualifying science attributes (making candidate sites more attractive from point of view of MSR-campaign science objectives. i. ii. Are there suitable candidate sites for MSR in the 5S to 25N latitude band at elevations less than -1 km? What is the value of going to sites outside of this latitude band? Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision Pre-decisional: for discussion purposes only 23 Requested Tasks - 3 TASK 3. Reference landing sites. To assist in planning the engineering of the landed elements of the MSR campaign, identify several reference landing sites of interest that contain proposed attributes. Purpose of these sites would be to help

engineers design the mission elements so that at least some sites of interest could be accessed. Note that these reference sites would not carry any formal status; there would be an independent landing site competition. Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 24 E2E-iSAG Schedule 2010 NRC 2011 Decadal Survey MEPAG E2E-iSAG Write report Face-to-face #2? MSR Objectives Derived Implications Face-to-face #1 Initial scoping

2018 Science Definition Team Major Mars Confs. MEPAG Meetings AGU townhal l LPSC, Housto n SDT Mars Conf. #22 San Francisco Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Los Angeles #23 Lisbon (tentative) Subject to Revision 25 Discussion Topic #1 Landing Sites:

1. What scientific considerations should go into choosing the dual rover mission landing site ? 2. Are the current scientific objectives (i.e., ND-SAG objectives) too constraining in choosing the environments and lithologies of the selected landing site ? 3. What are the prospects for finding scientifically important landing site candidates within the latitude and elevation restrictions ? 4. What is the value of going to sites outside of this latitude band? Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 26 PROPOSED LANDING SITE CRITERIA 5S to 25N latitude at elevations less than -1 km Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 27 Discussion Topic #2 Investigations: 1. What types of investigations would be needed to achieve the objectives of MSR ? 2. Are there investigations that have not been discussed to date ? Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 28 Further Discussion

Additional ideas ? Please contact Mark Sephton, Scott McLennan, or Dave Beaty Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 29 Backup Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 30 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 31 Findings Related to Potential Sample Return LANDING SITES FINDING: The best way to evaluate the multiple candidate sites from which to consider returning samples is via an open landing site selection competition with sample return selection criteria. A mission such as the proposed MAX-C presents the first opportunity to evaluate new high-potential sites via such a competition. 32 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision

Conceptual MSR Campaign A System with Multiple Mission Elements Launched in a Sequence of Mars Opportunities (one landing site for multiple missions) Caching rover deposits cache Cache 2020 Lander collects contingency sample Fetch rover retrieves cache 2026 Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Sky Crane descent Sky Crane descent Orbiting Sample (OS) 500 km orbit

Caching Mission MSR Orbiter Rendezvous and capture of OS MSR Lander Earth divert of ERV Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) 2018 2022 2024 Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) 2027 33

Draft Sample Size: Rock Samples Mass (g) Goal Specific purpose EXAMPLE MASS ALLOCATIONS: ROCK SAMPLE Sample examination within SRF get enough info. to make decisions about what to do 0.5 with sample Preliminary examination Life detection and biohazard nonLD-BH* destructive tests Destructive tests associated with 2 characterizing sample, including C LD-BH* chemistry Research Requests from Principal Investigators 1.0 Thin section Develop at least 5 thin sections to science support multiple investigations 3.0

General research Allocations within first year to 12-15 PIs for destructive and nondestructive investigations 3.5 Future research Stored for future analyses (beyond 1st year) 10 Total sample mass Methods Non-destructive or minimally destructive PE observations on thin sections; optical microscopy, SEM, EMPA raman, confocal raman, FTIR, XRF, LD-MS, 3D tomography GC-MS, LC-MS, PCR, LAL, TOFSIMS SIMS, LA-ICP-MS, XANES, SEM, EMPA, FTIR, raman geochronology (TIMS, MC-ICPMS), stable isotopes, Mossbauer, GCMS, LCMS *Life Detection/Biohazard testing Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 34 Draft Composition of the Collection Number of Samples

Sample Type Mechanical Properties Min. Pref. Proposed science floor, 1st MSR Returned Mass Mass/ sample (gm) Case B. Cache from a previous mission is NOT returned Sedimentary suite rock 5 15 Hydrothermal suite rock 5 10 28 10 Low-T W/R suite rock 5

10 Igneous Suite rock 5 10 Other rock 2 1 Depth-Resolved Suite rock or reg. 5 10 0 Regolith granular 1 5 4 10 Dust granular 1 1 1 5 Ice ice or liquid 5 10 0

Atmospheric Gas gas 2 1 2 0.001 Cache from previous mission TOTAL rocks 0 0 Total Sample Mass Total Vial mass (gm) Total mass (gm) 280

10 280 560 0 0 0 0 40 5 10 5 40 5 80 10 10 20 20 50

0 0 345 670 0 35 Vial mass/ sample (gm) 325 NOTE: Consensus not yet reached Pre-decisional draft for discussion purposes only: Subject to Revision 35

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