Surpluses in the hydrological cycle Today we are learning this content: 5.5 (a and b) Complete the key terms Groundwater flooding Flash flooding Jokulhlaup Surface water flooding Flooding the occurs when intense rainfall has insufficient time to infiltrate the soil, so flows overland Flooding that occurs after the ground has become saturated from prolonged heavy rainfall
A flood with an exceptionally short lag time - often minutes or hours A type of glacial outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails. ng arni e l r fo are p e r P A number of environments are more at risk Low-lying parts of flood plains and river estuaries Urbanised areas
Small basins For each of these environments explain why they may be more at risk of flooding use Hodder p30 What causes flooding? What meteorological factors cause flooding? Physical factors! Page 31 and top of p32 Hodder. Use the fig 2.12 too new ent on s e r ti P
rma info Examiners key points Its crucial to have case studies for each one Flooding - examples new ent on s e r ti P rma info Monsoon rain Pakistan http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-a sia-india-29171823 Recap on how monsoons happen: http://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/k12/.monsoons The Effects:
https:// www.britannica.com/science/West-African-mo nsoon Prolonged rainfall - The UK Snow melt- Bangladesh For each of these examples, you need to read through the geo factsheet and highlight the key points. You need to formulate notes in your book which helps you to explain why the floods occurred in these places. Be sure where applicable that you make sense of the synoptic chart that is shown. Flash Floods: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-europe-29529414/ french-flash-floods-wreak-havoc-in-southern-city-ofmontpellier Snow Melt: https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesnowmelt.html Human causes of flooding Urbanisation River management
Climate change Human causes of flooding Change of land use Deforestation How can we understand flood risk? Flood frequency The size of the largest flood event for each year for a particular location is placed in rank order, with Rank 1 being the largest for all available records for any given location. The following calculation is applied to calculate the time interval between floods of a similar size. T = n+1 M Where T = recurrence interval N = number of years of observation M = rank order The calculated recurrence level indicates the number of years within which a flood of this size might be expected.
Limitations: based on historic data which means similar floods may occur more/less frequently. Climate change would lead us to think events will be more frequent. The floods of highest magnitude will have much longer return periods While they have the highest impact they may be less likely to occur. Flood return Also known as the flood recurrence interval Estimate of the likelihood of a flood of a certain size recurring. A flood likely to happen once in ten years has a 10% chance of happening in any one year However. This cannot be used as a forecast as a flood may happen more than once in the same time interval or may not occur at all. Between 1900 and 2010 the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT)
recorded over 3000 flood disasters worldwide. Intense flooding can lead to over supplies of sediment and nutrients, with possible eutrophication and destruction of aquatic plants. 90% of all flood deaths and 50% of economic damage occurs in Asia (China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Vietnam) Floods can recharge groundwater systems, fill wetlands, increase connectivity between aquatic habitats, and move sediment and nutrients around the landscape.
Flood depth is linked to mortality. In many LICs many people have not learnt to swim . Worldwide children and old people are particularly vulnerable. Intense flooding can lead to pollution from nitrates, chemicals and heavy metals, all of which degrade aquatic habitats. In HDCs property values are severely impacted in flood prone areas. Issues also arise when coming to resell properties Structural damage to properties in all countries in a major cause of tangible flood losses Crops, livestock and
agricultural infrastructure suffer major damage. Subsistence farmers lose a lot of food supply. In HDCs this can also cause escalating food prices Destruction of bridges e.g. Cockermouth, Cumbria can make communication between parts of settlements difficult. In NICs growth exceeds flood defence provision so infrastructural loses are high Income from tourism is disrupted. The degree of threat posed by a Floods between 1900 and Flooding can trigger flood depends on the depth and
2010whether were responsible for of species Colour code of the grid aboveand to show the impacts velocity of the water.your Water version 0.5m breeding 200,000 deaths and 3 billion encourage migration and deep can wash cars away and environmental being impacted in some way
cause the foundations of buildings dispersal. to collapse In LDCs post-flood morbidity likely due or to are socio iseconomic water borne diseases and secondary flood hazards. Between 1900 and 2010 the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) recorded over 3000 flood disasters worldwide. Flood depth is linked to mortality. In many LICs many people have not learnt to swim . Worldwide children and old people are particularly vulnerable. Crops, livestock and
agricultural infrastructure suffer major damage. Subsistence farmers lose a lot of food supply. In HDCs this can also cause escalating food prices Floods can recharge groundwater systems, fill wetlands, increase connectivity between aquatic habitats, and move sediment and nutrients around the landscape. Floods between 1900 and 2010 were responsible for 200,000 deaths and 3 billion being impacted in some way 90% of all flood deaths and 50% of economic damage occurs in Asia (China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Vietnam)
The degree of threat posed by a flood depends on the depth and velocity of the water. Water 0.5m deep can wash cars away and cause the foundations of buildings to collapse In LDCs post-flood In HDCs property values Structural damage to morbidity is likely due to are severely impacted in properties in all countries water borne diseases and flood prone areas. Issues in a major cause of secondary flood hazards. also arise when coming to tangible flood losses resell properties Destruction of bridges e.g. Cockermouth, Cumbria can make communication between parts of settlements difficult. In NICs growth exceeds flood defence provision so infrastructural loses
are high Income from tourism is disrupted. Flooding can trigger breeding of species and encourage migration and dispersal. Intense flooding can lead to over supplies of sediment and nutrients, with possible eutrophication and destruction of aquatic plants. Intense flooding can lead to pollution from nitrates, chemicals and heavy metals, all of which degrade aquatic habitats. Socio economic Red
Environmental - Blue The impact of flooding in England and Wales, summer 2007 Create a case study on the England and Wales folds in Summer 2007 You should include detail on the following: Causes Hydrological and human Specific named examples should be used here Impacts Social, economic and environmental long and short term (again a range of named examples should be used) Relevant maps, images, graphs should also be incorporated and their relevance explained. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7446721.stm http:// www.metoffice.gov.uk/about-us/who/how/case-s tudies/summer-2007 http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/2814/1/N002814BK.pdf ct stru n o C ning mea
new Exam question With the help of figure 2, explain why the floods occurred in Pakistan in August 2010 (4 marks) new uct r t s Con ning mea Exam question With the help of figure 2, explain why the floods occurred in Pakistan in August 2010 (4 marks) new uct r t
s Con ning mea Exam question Using examples, discuss the impact of flooding on people and the environment (15 marks) Homework Task Using newspaper articles and publications such as Geofile and Geo Factsheets, research two contrasting flood events (different causes, countries at different levels of development) and prepare a quadrant form diagram to compare the environmental, social and economic impacts both immediately after the event and then short term and long term. Flood event: Immediate Short term Long term
Social Impacts Economic impacts Environmental impacts Flood event: Immediate Short term Long term Social Impacts Economic impacts Environmental impacts Flood event: Immediate
Short term Long term Social Impacts Economic impacts Environmental impacts
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