The new Earth Observation: the added value for Smart Cities Urban Areas An Environmental Challenge for Earth 13-15 November 2012 Observation www.smartcityexpo.com THE DARK SIDE OF THE EARTH Some Alternative Future Observations of the Earth from Space at Night Dr. Paul C. Sutton Barbara Hardy Institute & School of Natural and Built Environments University of South Australia Adelaide, SA Australia The Dark Side of the Earth 10,000 years ago. Human Population roughly 7 MILLION. ?
The Dark Side of the Earth Today. Human Population roughly 7 BILLION. 10,000 years From now How Dark will it be? Dark Side of the Earth Observations in 10,000 years: 1) Totally Dark a) Nuclear War b) Ecological Collapse of Homo Sapiens c) ? There are MANY paths that are not sustainable 2) Bright Spots in Patches
a) Dead Zones (e.g. the movies Children of Men & Total Recall II) b) Some smart cities and some dumb cities? 3) Similar to today with perhaps reduced brightness levels a) Hopefully because we found a path to sustainability that included Smart Cities for everyone. Note: It is very unlikely there will be 7 Trillion people on the earth 10,000 years from now. A TALE OF TWO CITIES? A) Cities where Environmental Challenges are the people themselves. Repression is the only lasting philosophy. The dark deference of fear and slavery, my friend, will keep the dogs obedient to the whip, as long as this roof shuts out the sky. The Marquis St. Evremenode to his nephew Darnay From A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens B) Cities where Environmental Challenges are faced cooperatively. Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.
The opening line of Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy What will the Happy Family Cities look like? What are the common attributes of Smart Cities? Sadly, I believe Failure IS an option. If we fail to pull off B well devolve to A. WHAT WILL URBAN SPATIAL DATA LOOK LIKE IN 10 YEARS? (image from http://www.geodesignsummit.com/ ) Imagery with high spatial &/or spectral &/or temporal resolution, LIDAR derived 3-D representations, Metered Information, Volunteered Geographic Information, Architectural Drawings, Census Data, Transportation Networks, Surveillance cameras Internet activity and traffic, cell phone data, and much much more .. .. Held by who? Used for what?
At what cost of acquisition? At what cost of Analysis? WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES TO URBAN AREAS? Many of the challenges cities will face are the very same challenges their hinterlands will face (Geo 5 UNEP report) The Report Card of GEO 5 Shows Little or No Progress or Cities depend on their hinterlands for food production, worse on more than 50% of the waste absorption, and water - at Environmental Challenges they assessed (19 out of 34)
the very minimum. With Further Deterioration the Food Currently it takes 5 joules of fossil fuel to produce 1 Assessment for: Wetlands, Fish Stocks, and Coral Reefs joule of food. As we pass through peak oil this fact may make cities very unpleasant places to be. Smart Cities will map and identify their dependency on hinterlands and insure they are well managed and protected. REMOTE SENSING OF CITIES CURRENT QUESTIONS What is the feedback between urban and environmental systems as the world urbanizes? Climate scientists, energy analysts, urban planners, ecologists
Development of an understanding of an Urban Metabolism akin to our understanding of the metabolism of the human body. How do we measure the Health of a city? What are the measurable analogs of temp, blood pressure, blood sugar, heart rate etc.? Energy Flows, Water Flows, Food Flows, Waste Flows, Income Flows, etc.? Figure below from (Duvigneaud and Denayeyer-De Smet, 1977) Natural and Human-made Hazards Planning and Response Planning & Design of the built environment for efficiency of all metabolism metrics
Dynamic capability for assessment and response to fast changes earthquakes, heat waves, floods, etc.) (e.g. Monitoring and Enforcement Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon Garrett Hardin Soe Myint et al. (In Review at Remote Sensing of Environment) Kennedy, C.; Pincetl, S.; Bunje, P. (2012) The study of urban metabolism and its Remote Sensing of Urban Areas: State of the Art and Gaps in Knowledge applications to urban planning and design Environmental Pollution Volume 167 pp 184-185 URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES We already know that there are many ecosystem services provided in urban environments that are classic market failures in that they are often: 1) Public Goods, 2) Common Property, 3) Are subject to both positive and negative externalities, and 4)
Have difficult issues with respect to Property Rights. The City of Barcelona recognizes the existence of numerous urban ecosystem services now. See their web site to the right. Some well established urban ecosystem services are: Air Filtering, Micro-Climate Regulation, Noise reduction, Rainwater drainage, Sewage treatment, Recreational values. Free markets tend to not account for these services and they are often degraded as a result (For example: a 10% increase in tree cover could reduce total energy for heating and cooling by $50-90 per dwelling unit per year).
http://www.bcn.cat/en/ihome.htm Green Building Design will move from a luxury we cannot afford to a requirement we cannot avoid. Bolund, Per; Hunhammar, Sven (1999) Ecosystem Services in Urban Areas Ecological Economics 29 pp 293-301 NIGHTTIME IMAGERY OF THE EARTH Observations of the earth from space at night are compelling. Night-time imagery has been used to make proxy measures of: 1) Population and population density 2) Human settlements and urban & exurban areas 3) Formal and informal economic activity 4) Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions 5) Human appropriation of NPP 6) Gas Flaring and Lantern Fishing 7) Ecological Footprints Paris The city of light at twilight Despite the demonstrated potential that nocturnal observations of the earth have for making proxy measures of numerous anthropogenic
impacts - Very few satellite observation platforms are designed for, or capable of, making nighttime observations of the earth Proxy measures of these kinds of human activities may be of increasing utility in a world of decreasing resources. Particularly as institutions weaken and public support for things like the American Community Survey wanes. LIGHT POLLUTION IN URBAN AREAS Despite the many useful proxy measures that can be made with nocturnal images of urban areas at night Light Pollution is a serious problem 1) Nighttime imagery has detrimental effects on wildlife 2) Light Pollution has negative health impacts (e.g. lower immunity, higher cancer) 3) Light pollution inhibits the breakdown of some toxic chemicals in smog 4) More than half the worlds children have never seen the Milky Way Smart -> <- Not Smart https://sites.google.com/site/skywalkdownunder/home/adelaide-light-pollution Smart Cities will improve human health, reduce carbon footprints, and save wildlife by sending less light into space
LIVING IN THE SOLUTION We will not talk about what Dumb Cities will do. We have enough examples already. How will Smart Cities behave in order to be around 10,000 years from now? Stabilize their populations Design and sustain a steady state economy focused on improving human well-being rather than increasing flows of matter and energy. Provide transportation, food, energy, and water to their population sustainably. Identify, monitor, and leverage ecosystem services to improve well being. Consist of active and engaged citizens who balance cooperation, competition, charity, and mutual coercion to achieve collective goals. Smart Cities will have to become big Happy Families with resource limitations, competing interests, and all the other challenges we are all too familiar with. It is likely these challenges will scale non-linearly with population size. CONCLUSION How will imagery support the establishment and maintenance of Smart Cities?
1) Support Proxy measures of myriad phenomena via integration of diverse sources of information - Cell phone data, VGI, nighttime imagery, LIDAR, hyperspectral imagery 2) Establish and Continuously Measure Urban Metabolism - Energy Flows, Water Flows, Food Flows, Waste Flows, People Flows, temperature, air quality 3) Map and monitor urban hinterlands and identify & characterize dependencies - Wetlands, agricultural lands, watersheds, etc. 4) Disaster and Hazard Planning and Response - Built environment planning, damage assessment, early warning systems, smart traffic 5) Monitoring and Enforcement - e.g. Foreground background hyperspectral imagery of atmosphere for pollution monitoring EXCERPT FROM THE NOVEL NIGHT WATCH BY TERRY PRATCHETT The city beyond was dark again, with only the occasional chink of light from a shuttered window. By comparison the streets of the Republic were ablaze. In a few hours the shops out there were expecting deliveries, and they werent going to arrive. The government couldnt sit this one out. A city like Ankh-Morpork was only two meals away from chaos at the best of times. Every day, maybe a hundred cows died for Ankh-Morpork. So did a flock of sheep and a herd of pigs and the gods alone knew how many ducks, chickens and geese. Flour? Hed heard it was eighty tons, and about the same amount of potatoes and maybe twenty tons of herring. He didnt particularly want to know this kind of thing, but once you started having to sort out the everlasting traffic problem these were facts that got handed to you. Every day, forty thousand eggs were laid for the city. Every day, hundreds, thousands of carts and boats and barges
converged on the city with fish and honey and oysters and olives and eels and lobsters. And then think of the horses dragging this stuff, and the windmills, . . . and the Wool coming in, too, every day, the cloth, the tobacco, the spices, the ore, the timber, the cheese, the coal, the fat, the tallow, the EVERY DAMN DAY . . . Against the dark screen of night, Vimes had a vision of Ankh-Morpork. It wansnt a city, It was a process, a weight on the world that distorted the land for hundreds of miles around. People Whod never see it in their whole life nevertheless spent their life working for it. Thousands and Thousands of green acres were part of it, forests were part of it. It drew in and consumed . . . . . and gave back the dung from its pens and soot from its chimneys, and steel, and saucepans, and all the tools by which its food was made. And also clothes, and fashions, and ideas and interesting Vices, songs and knowledge and something which, if looked at in the right light, was called Civilization . Thats what civilization meant. It meant the city. Was anyone else out there thinking about this? .. Was anyone important thinking about This? Suddenly the machine was wobbling, but Winder and his cronies didnt think about the Machine, they thought about money. Meat and drink came from servants. They happened.
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