Emergency Care THIRTEENTH EDITION CHAPTER 27 Chest and

Emergency Care THIRTEENTH EDITION CHAPTER 27 Chest and

Emergency Care THIRTEENTH EDITION CHAPTER 27 Chest and Abdominal Trauma Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Multimedia Directory Slide 31 Slide 42 Open Pneumothorax and Hemothorax Animation Liver Injuries Animation Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Topics

Chest Injuries Abdominal Injuries Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chest Injuries Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Chest Injuries Blunt trauma Can fracture ribs, sternum, and costal (rib) cartilages Compression Occurs when severe blunt trauma causes the chest to rapidly compress continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chest Injuries Penetrating objects Bullets, knives, pieces of metal or glass, steel rods, pipes, other objects Can damage internal organs and impair respiration Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Closed Chest Injuries Flail chest occurs when blunt trauma creates a fracture of two or more ribs in two or more places. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Closed Chest Injuries Paradoxical motion. Emergency Care, 13e

Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Closed Chest Injuries Flail chest Fracture of two or more consecutive ribs in two or more places Paradoxical motion Movement of flail segment is opposite to movement of the remainder of the chest cavities.

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Assessment Mechanism of injury capable of causing injury Difficulty breathing/hypoxia Pain at injury site Likely signs of shock and hypoxia Chest wall muscle contraction Emergency Care, 13e

Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Care Primary assessment for life threats Administer oxygen. If patient is breathing inadequately, assist ventilation. Follow local protocols regarding using noninvasive positive pressure ventilations. Monitor patient carefully. Watch respiratory rate and depth.

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Open Chest Injuries Difficult to tell what is injured from entrance wound Assume all wounds are life-threatening. Open wounds allow air into chest. Sets imbalance in pressure Causes lung to collapse Emergency Care, 13e

Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Assessment "Sucking chest wound" Chest cavity is open to atmosphere May or may not be a sucking sound May be gasping for air

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Care

Maintain open airway. Seal wound. Apply occlusive dressing. Administer high-concentration oxygen. Care for shock. Immediate transport. Consider ALS. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Occlusive and Flutter-Valve Dressings Involve taping dressing in place and leaving a side or corner of dressing unsealed As patient inhales, dressing will seal wound. As patient exhales, free corner or edge acts as flutter valve to release air trapped in chest cavity. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Occlusive and Flutter-Valve Dressings Creating a flutter valve to allow air to escape from the chest cavity. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Occlusive and Flutter-Valve Dressings

Creating a flutter valve to allow air to escape from the chest cavity. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Think About It Does the patient's chest injury need to be treated during the primary assessment? Does the open chest injury require an occlusive dressing? Does the patient's injury necessitate immediate transport to a trauma

center? Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity

Pneumothorax and pneumothorax Hemothorax and hemopneumothorax Traumatic asphyxia Cardiac tamponade Aortic injury and dissection continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Pneumothorax and tension

pneumothorax Pneumothorax When air enters chest cavity, possibly causing lung collapse Tension pneumothorax A type of pneumothorax where air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Air can enter the chest cavity through a puncture in the chest wall. This can cause a collapse of a lung and impaired breathing. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Pneumothorax and tension pneumothorax Patients typically have diminished or absent lung sounds on affected side.

continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Hemothorax and hemopneumothorax Hemothorax Chest cavity fills will blood. Hemopneumothorax Chest cavity fills with both blood and air.

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Hemothorax and Hemopneumothorax Pneumothorax, hemothorax, and hemopneumothorax. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Traumatic asphyxia Sudden compression of chest forcing blood out of organs and rupturing blood vessels Neck and face are a darker color than rest of the body May cause bulging eyes, distended neck veins, broken blood vessels in face continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Cardiac tamponade Direct injury to heart causing blood to flow into the pericardial sac around the heart Pericardium is a tough sac that rarely leaks. Increased pressure on heart so chambers cannot fill continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Cardiac tamponade Blood backs up into veins. Usually a result of penetrating trauma Distended neck veins Shock and narrowed pulse pressure

continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Aortic injury and dissection Aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body. Penetrating trauma can cause direct damage. Blunt trauma can sever or tear the

aorta. Damage can cause high-pressure bleeding; often fatal. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Aortic injury and dissection Patient complains of pain in chest, abdomen, or back. Signs of shock

Differences in pulse or blood pressure between right and left arms or differences in pulses between arms and legs or the legs themselves continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Injuries Within the Chest Cavity Commotio cordis Uncommon condition Trauma to chest when heart is

vulnerable If untreated, patient will go into ventricular fibrillation (VF). Treat like a VF patient. CPR, defibrillation Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Open Pneumothorax and Hemothorax Animation

Click on the screenshot to view an animation about open pneumothorax and hemothorax. Back to Directory Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Abdominal Injuries Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All Rights Reserved Abdominal Injuries Can be open or closed Internal bleeding can be severe if organs or blood vessels are lacerated or ruptured. Serious, painful reactions if hollow organs rupture. Evisceration may occur. Organs protruding through wound opening Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Abdominal Injuries First Take Standard Precautions. Cover the dressed wound to maintain warmth. Secure the covering with tape or cravats tied above and below the position of the exposed organ. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Assessment

Pain, initially mild but rapidly becoming intolerable Cramps Nausea Weakness Thirst Obvious lacerations and puncture wounds to abdomen continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Patient Assessment Lacerations and punctures wounds to pelvis, and middle and lower back Indications of blunt trauma Indications of developing shock Coughing up or vomiting blood Rigid and/or tender abdomen Distended abdomen Patient tries to lie very still. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Patient Care Stay alert for vomiting; keep airway open. Place patient on back with legs flexed at knees to reduce tension on abdominal muscles. Administer high-concentration oxygen. Care for shock. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Patient Care Give nothing to patient by mouth. Continuously monitor vital signs. Transport as soon as possible. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Care Additional steps for open abdominal

injuries Control external bleeding and dress all wounds. Do not touch or replace eviscerated organs. Apply sterile dressing moistened with sterile saline over wound site. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Patient Care

Additional steps for open abdominal injuries Do not touch or replace eviscerated organs. For large evisceration, maintain warmth by placing layers of bulky dressing over occlusive dressing. Do not remove any impaled object. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Patient Care Additional steps for open abdominal injuries Stabilize with bulky dressings bandaged in place. Leave patients legs in position found to avoid muscular movement that may move impaled object. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Liver Injuries Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of liver injuries. Back to Directory Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review An open chest or abdominal wound is considered to be one that penetrates not only the skin but the chest and abdominal wall to expose internal organs. Open chest and abdominal wounds are life threatening. For an open chest or abdominal wound, apply an occlusive dressing. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e

Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review For both open and closed injuries, take appropriate Standard Precautions, note the mechanism of injury, protect the patients airway and breathing, administer high-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask, treat for shock, and transport. continued on next slide

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review A flail chest is characterized by paradoxical motion. If the patient is unable to adequately breathe, assist the patients ventilations. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review Seal an open chest wound with an occlusive dressing taped on three sides or in some other manner so it acts as a one-way valve, allowing air out of the chest but not in. Alternatively, use a commercial device such as the Asherman Chest Seal with a one-way valve to relieve pressure. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e

Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review Monitor the patient for changes, and be prepared to manually relieve any pressure in the chest. Closed chest wounds are sometimes difficult to distinguish or may occur together. Assess the patient, including breath sounds, and maintain ventilation, oxygenation, and perfusion. continued on next slide

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review A patient who collapses in cardiac arrest after a force to the center of the chest should receive CPR and defibrillation like any other arrest from a cardiac cause. If a patient develops signs of tension pneumothorax, arrange immediately for ALS intercept or transport promptly to a

facility that can treat this injury. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Review When solid abdominal organs are injured, life-threatening amounts of blood loss can occur. When hollow abdominal organs are injured, their contents spill into the abdominal cavity causing irritation.

Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Remember Blunt trauma, penetrating trauma, and compression are mechanisms that can injure the chest and abdomen. Open or closed pertains to the integrity of the chest or abdominal wall after injury. Seal open chest wounds to prevent air

from entering the chest cavity. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Remember Closed chest and abdominal wounds bear a high risk for underlying organ system damage and internal bleeding. Use mechanism of injury and patient assessment to recognize the signs and symptoms of shock.

continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Remember EMTs should learn signs and symptoms, and treatment procedures for specific chest and abdominal injuries. Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Questions to Consider Is the patient's breathing adequate, inadequate, or absent? Is the patient displaying signs of shock? Is there an open wound in the chest that needs to be sealed? continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe

Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Questions to Consider Is the patient displaying signs of a tension pneumothorax? Is there an open wound in the abdomen that needs to be dressed and covered? Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Critical Thinking You are caring for a patient who was shot in the chest with a nail gun. You applied an occlusive dressing around the wound. The patient is suddenly deteriorating. He is having extreme difficulty breathing and his color has worsened. continued on next slide Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Critical Thinking Breath sounds have become almost totally absent on the side with the impaled nail. What complication might you suspect is causing his worsening condition? How could this be corrected? Emergency Care, 13e Daniel Limmer | Michael F. O'Keefe Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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