The Industrial Revolution Beginning/ Def State two changes
The Industrial Revolution Beginning/ Def State two changes in the way cloth (goods) was produced as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Causes The Enclosure Movement During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one
large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes. Crop Rotation
Charles Townsend introduced the four field system of crop rotation. The innovations in this four year rotation system were turnips and clover. Turnips were used as cattle feed, fodder for livestock, during the winter months Clover is a plant which is able to add nitrogen
compounds to the soil because its roots have special structures, called root nodules, attached to them. Inside these nodules are found symbiotic bacteria which feed by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and producing nitrates (nitrogencontaining salts). The clover, which is more nutritious than grass, was used for
grazing the livestock. In turn, the livestock produced manure which could be ploughed back into the soil. Seed Drill Machine designed by
Jethro Tull which mechanically planted seeds. How did agricultural innovations affect food production? How might this affect population
growth? Were there any negative effects of the enclosure movement? Population Explosion Background: Connections to Science
Did you know?...One of the great medical achievements of the 1700s was the development of a vaccine against smallpox, a disease which over the centuries claimed more victims than cholera, bubonic plague, and yellow fever combined. English surgeon Edward Jenner, in 1796, noted that milkmaids
who contracted the mild disease of cowpox did not later catch smallpox. After several tests, Jennings concluded that people inoculated with the cowpox virus became immune to smallpox. Thus, the word vaccination was derived from the Latin word vacca for cow.
Jenner spent the rest of his life promoting his vaccine. In 1979, the World Health Organization finally declared the world to be small-pox free. Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 499. Print.
Background: Connections to Science Did you know?... A Hungarian doctor named John Lister introduced antiseptic measures to reduce the risk of women dying in childbirth. Sepsis is a blood-borne infection that is often fatal. Antiseptics kill the virus. Today we use an antiseptic mouthwash called---- yes--Listerine.
What happened to the population of Great Britain between 1700 and 1780? In the 1800s, this trend continued. Why? A great number of streams....furnish water-power adequate to turn many hundred mills: they afford the element of
water, indispensable for scouring, bleaching, printing, dyeing, and other processes of manufacture: and when collected in their larger channels, or employed to feed canals, they supply a superior inland navigation, so important for the transit of raw materials and merchandise. -Edward Bains, The History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain (1835)
In comparing the advantages of England for manufactures with those of other countries, we can by no means overlook the excellent commercial position of the country intermediate between the north and south of Europe; and its insular situation [island location], which, combined with the
command of the seas, secures our territory from invasion or annoyance. The German ocean, the Baltic, and the Mediterranean are the regular highways for our ships; and our western ports command an unobstructed [clear] passage to the Atlantic, and to every quarter [part] of the world. Source: Edward Baines, History of the Cotton
Manufacture in Great Britain, A.M. Kelly . .England, however, has grown great in both respects. She is both a great colonial power and a great industrial power. And she has been fortunate in possessing the natural conditions necessary to success. For industry and commerce, no less than the command of the seas, are limited by natural conditions. Modern manufactures cluster round coalfields, where power can be had cheaply; the possession of good harbours
is essential to maritime trade; a country where broad and gently-flowing rivers act as natural canals will have advantages in internal communications over a country broken up by mountain ranges. . . . When we recognize that England is rich in these advantages, that she has coal and iron lying close together, that her sheep give the best wool, that her harbours are plentiful, that she is not ill-off for rivers, and that no part of the country is farther than some seventy miles from the sea, we have not
said all. . Source: George T. Warner, Landmarks in English Industrial History, Blackie & Son Limited What resources did Britain have that made it a suitable place for an industrial revolution?
Effects Urbanization New York City (1800) New York City (1900)
New York City (Current) What might we infer from these three pictures about how society changed because of the Industrial Revolution?
Factories are powered by steam, water heated by coal. Therefore where do factories need to be built? Where are early industrial cities located? Effects of Urbanization
Expanding Cities Background: Daily Life Did you know?...As working class families moved from the countryside to urban slums, they had to make many difficult adjustments. One change, for example, was that they could no longer grow fruits and vegetables in their
own gardens. Instead, they had to buy their food at markets, where groceries were often rotten, stale, or tainted. Unscrupulous grocers were known to take advantage of the situation. Some milk sellers put formaldehyde in their milk to prevent spoilage. Sugar sometimes contained pounded rice, and dirt was added to cocoa.
Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 503. Print. Excerpt from Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton (1848) You went down one step even from the foul area
into the cellar in which a family of human beings lived. It was very dark inside. The window-panes many of them were broken and stuffed with rags.the smell was so fetid as almost to knock the two men down.they began to penetrate the thick darkness of the place, and to see three or four little children rolling on the damp, nay wet brick floor,
through which the stagnant, filthy moisture of the street oozed up. It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. It was a town of machinery
and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill- smelling dye. . . . Charles Dickens, Hard Times . . . A place more destitute of all interesting objects
than Manchester, it is not easy to conceive. In size and population it is the second city in the kingdom, containing above fourscore thousand [80,000] inhabitants. Imagine this multitude crowded together in narrow streets, the houses all built of brick and blackened with smoke; frequent buildings among them as large as convents, without their
antiquity, without their beauty, without their holiness; where you hear from within, as you pass along, the everlasting din of machinery; and where when the bell rings it is to call wretches to their work instead of their prayers, . . . Robert J.Southey, Letters from England, 1807
Does this seem like a healthy place to live? Why or why not? (List) Why did families live under conditions such as these? Child Labor
Children who worked were subject to appalling conditions. Many who worked died before they reached 25 Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1312764/Britains-child-slaves-New-book-saysmisery-helped-forge-Britain.html#ixzz1gHQdRVb6 Child chimney sweeps often had
to crawl through holes only 18in wide - and cruel masters would light fires to make them climb faster. Many fell to their
deaths Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/arti cle-1312764/Britains-child-slavesNew-book-says-misery-helped-forgeBritain.html#ixzz1gHQN92UK Real life Oliver Twists: Child workers were often beaten, abused, hungry and tired.
Their childhood was often over before it had begun Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1312764/Britains-childslaves-New-book-says-misery-helped-forge-Britain.html#ixzz1gHQsbkAw Pauper apprentice: Children were often sold to masters as it meant their parents had one fewer month to feed Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1312764/Britains-childslaves-New-book-says-misery-helped-forge-Britain.html#ixzz1gHR288HV
Others were stunted in growth or had twisted limbs. Most remained uneducated. Members of the Ashley Mines Commission heard about 17year-old Patience Krenshaw I go to the mine at 5 oclock in the morning and come out at 5 in the eveningThe bald place upon my head is made by pushing the corves [carts full of coal]. a mile and more
and backI wear a belt and chain to get the corves out. Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 503. Print. I dont know how old I am. . . . I began to work when I was about 9. I first worked for
a man who used to hit me with a belt. . . . I used to sleep in the pits that had no more coal in them; I used to eat whatever I could get; I ate for a long time the candles that I found in the pits. . . . E. Royston Pike adapted from Hard Times, Human Documents of the Industrial
Revolution This is an excerpt from William Coopers testimony before the Sadler Committee in 1832. Sadler: When did you first begin to work in mills? Cooper: When I was ten years of age. Sadler: What were your usual hours of working?
Cooper: We began at five in the morning and stopped at nine in the night. Sadler: What time did you have for meals? Cooper: We had just one period of forty minutes in the sixteen hours. That was at noon. Sadler: What means were taken to keep you awake and attentive? Cooper: At times we were frequently strapped. Sadler: When your hours were so long, did you have any time to attend a day
school? Cooper: We had no time to go to day school. This is an excerpt from the testimony of Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee. Sadler: Do you know of any other children who died at the R___Mill? Hebergam: There were about a dozen died during the two years and a half that I
was there. At the L____ Mill where I worked last, a boy was caught in a machine and had both his thigh bones broke and from his knee to his hip . . . . His sister, who ran to pull him off, had both her arms broke and her head bruised. The boy died. I do not know if the girl is dead, but she was not expected to live. Sadler: Did the accident occur because the shaft was not covered? Hebergam: Yes.
. . . The factory owners did not have the power to compel anybody to take a factory job. They could only hire people who were ready to work for the wages offered to them. Low as these wage rates were, they were nonetheless much more than these paupers
could earn in any other field open to them. It is a distortion of facts to say that the factories carried off the housewives from the nurseries and the kitchens and the children from their play. These women had nothing to cook with and [nothing] to feed their children. These children were destitute [poor] and starving.
Their only refuge was the factory. It saved them, in the strict sense of the term, from death by starvation. . . . Ludwig von Mises, Human Action, A Treatise on Economics, Yale University Press
What were the working conditions like? Why were children allowed to work? Why would factory owners hire children?
Was it anybodys fault that these children were working, or were they victims of economic circumstance? Economic Philosophies Social Darwinism- Herbert Spencer
The term survival of the fittest was coined by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer. Spencer was a Social Darwinist who was completely opposed to government assistance programs. He believed that competition made people stronger, and that, conversely, government handouts made people weaker. In 1891, he wrote, The ultimate result of
shielding men from the effects of folly is to fill the world with fools. Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith Laissez-faire economics modern capitalism "[E]very individual, therefore, endeavors as much as he can [to direct his resources toward his own business] so that its
produce may be of greatest value; 'every individual. . . neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it . . . He intends only his own gain, and he is in this. . . led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. . . By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it."
The Iron Law of Wages- David Ricardo When wages are high, people have more children more children= more competition in the workforce wages drop people are poor again
Thomas Malthus, Essay on Population, 1798 Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power in the earth to provide subsistence for man, that
premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. . . Robert Owen and Utopian Socialism A poor Welsh boy who grew up to be a successful factory owner, Owen refused to use child labor, fought for laws
to outlaw child labor, and supported the creation of labor unions. He built a village around his factory, complete with affordable housing and a free school for the children of his workers. (Think: Why would he do this?) Check out page 512 of textbook- Connections to Today: Day Care
Communist Manifesto, 1848, Friederich Engels and Karl Marx . . . They [the Communists] openly declare that their ends can be attained [achieved] only by the
forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians (workers) have nothing to lose but their chains. They
have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite! The workers will rise up and overthrow the privileged class.
Private property will cease to exist. The people will own the means of production. Questions comparing economic philosophies
How do you think Herbert Spencer (Social Darwinism)would feel about welfare and food stamps? Did Adam Smith (Capitalism)believe the government should get involved and tell business owners how to run their businesses and how to treat their workers? What recommendation would Ricardo and Malthus (Capitalism)make for the working classes to climb out of poverty?
How did Robert Owen (Utopian Socialism)feel about workers? How did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Communism) feel about workers and their situation? The areas in black on the map are areas that were industrialized in the capitalist model. So were the capitalists right, according to this map? Workers Rights/ Reform
Movements British Factory Legislation 1833 Parliament passed a Factory Act, which forbade nearly all textile mills from employing children under eleven years, and prohibited children between eleven and thirteen from working more than forty-eight hours a week, or nine in a single day. It also prohibited youths between the ages of thirteen and eighteen from working more than sixty-nine hours a week, or twelve in a single
day. These work periods were to include an hour and a half for meals. Children under thirteen were required to have two hours of schooling per day. 1847 The Ten Hours Act limited the workday to ten hours for women and children who worked in factories. 1880 The first Employers Liability Act granted compensation to workers for on-the-job injuries not their own fault. 1891- Prohibition on employers to employ women within four weeks after
confinement; the second the raising of the minimum age at which a child can be set to work from ten to eleven. Workers Rights/ Reform Movements What reform laws were needed to fix the problems associated with an industrializing society?
Were these laws effective? (Are they still in use today? What would our society be like without them?) Social Class System How did the social class structure change as a
result of the Industrial Revolution? Womens Rights In England, the period from 1837-1901 is known as the Victorian Era because Queen Victorias long reign spanned those years. Middle-class Victorians had a strict code of
manners: A widow was expected to dress in black from head to toe and never to remarry. In contrast, a widower wore a black band around his hat or sleeve and was expected to find a new wife quickly. Women wore suffocating corsets pulled tightly enough to achieve the ideal waist measurement of 18-20 inches.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Solitude of Self The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher educationis the solitude and personal responsibility of her own
individual lifeAs an individual, she must rely on herself. . . . To throw obstacles in the way of a complete education is like putting out the eyes... In talking of education, how shallow the argument that each class must be educated for the special work it proposes to do, and that all those faculties not needed in this special work must lie dormant and utterly wither for want of use, when, perhaps, these will be the very faculties needed in lifes greatest emergencies!
Supposing woman to have been formed only to please, and be subject to man, the conclusion is just, she ought to sacrifice every other consideration to render herself agreeable to him: and let this brutal desire of self-preservation be the grand spring of all her actions, when it is proved to be the iron bed of fate, to fit which her character should be stretched or contracted, regardless of all moral or physical distinctions.
But, if, as I think, may be demonstrated, the purposes, of even this life, viewing the whole, are subverted by practical rules built upon this ignoble base, I may be allowed to doubt whether woman was created for man: and, though the cry of irreligion, or even atheism, be raised against me, I will simply declare, that were an angel from heaven to tell me that Moses's beautiful, poetical cosmogony, and the account of the fall of man, were literally true, I could not believe what my reason told me was
derogatory to the character of the Supreme Being: and, having no fear of the devil before mine eyes, I venture to call this a suggestion of reason, instead of resting my weakness on the broad shoulders of the first seducer of my frail sex. From A Vindication on the Rights of Women by Mary Wollstonecraft By the late 1800s, women in Germany were
permitted to attend university lectures- but only if they stood in the back of the lecture hall or listened from outside an open window or door. Despite such obstacles, determined women struggled to complete their educations.- Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 2001. 505. Print. Womens rights How did Victorian rules for men and women differ? How does Stanton believe that an education would help women better control their own lives? How does Wollestonecfaft believe men view
women? What hardships did women endure to receive the same education as their male counterparts? Imperialism The necessity that is upon us [is] to provide
for our ever-growing population- either by opening new fields for emigration, or by providing work and employmentand to stimulate trade by finding new markets. Lord Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire 83
The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for
raw materials and new markets. 84 Imperialism Questions
Famine We entered a cabin. Stretched in one dark corner, scarcely visible, from the smoke and rags that covered them, were three children huddled together, lying there because they were too weak to rise, pale and ghastly, their little limbs on removing a portion of the filthy
covering perfectly emaciated, eyes sunk, voice gone, and evidently in the last stage of actual starvation. William Bennett, The Peoples of Ireland Potato Famine Ireland experienced a famine in
1845 when their main crop, the potato, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live
on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States. Source: Regents Prep: Global History and Geography: Movement of People and Goods.
Famine Questions Malthus predicted that the population was growing too fast and would outpace the food supply. How did the British supplement their food supply? At whose expense?
Connections to the Arts Did you know The dizzying rate of invention in the late 1800s inspired imaginative novelists like Frances Jules Verne (20,000 Leagues Under the Sea) and Englands HG Wells (War of the Worlds; The Time Machine) to
pioneer a new literary form- science fiction. In his 1865 novel From Earth to the Moon, Verne created one of the earliest pictures of space travel. Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 505. Print.
In 1816, a teenager named Mary Shelley had a nightmare vision that inspired her to write Frankenstein, a novel about a scientist who tries to make a human being but creates a monster instead. The story reflected a fear of many Europeans during the Industrial Revolution that humans were using technology to tamper with nature.
Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 505. Print. Did you know Some artists saw the darker side of the new industrial city. Edvard Munch believed that impressionisms interest in colorful landscapes
failed to address the inner landscape of man. By distorting the human form, Munch hoped to convey the alienation he believed permeated life especially life in the industrial city.
Source: Ellis, Elisabeth G., and Anthony Esler. World History: Connections to Today. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001. 505. Print. Spring Evening on Karl Johan Street, Oslo, by Edvard Munch The Scream, by Edvard Munch
Returning to the Trenches JR Nevinson Connections to the Arts- Questions Todays science fiction is tomorrows reality Was Verne crazy or a gifted visionary?
Shelley speaks of the fears that people of the Industrial Age had about scientists messing with nature. Do we have similar concerns today? What do Munchs people look like? What is he trying to say? What do you think the Nevinson is trying to say about soldiers in an industrial army?
Connections to Today Overpopulation Article on India Famine
Famine is the triple failure of (1) food production, (2) peoples ability to access food and, finally and most crucially (3) in the political response by governments and international donors. Crop
failure and poverty leave people vulnerable to starvation but famine only occurs with political failure. In Somalia years of internal violence and conflict have been highly significant in creating the conditions for famine.
Oxfam International Famine Many historians say that Malthus theory on population was wrong because the industrialized nations of Europe avoided famine by decreasing their average family size. What they dont elaborate on is that they also supplemented their food supply by subjugating
Ireland and conquering nations in Africa and Asia. (Remember, the winners write the history books). So, looking at the ongoing problems in these regions, what do you think of Malthusian Theory now? As nations in Africa and Asia now try to follow in Europes footsteps of industrialization, what evidence do you see of history repeating itself?
Pollution Article on China http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=7Rq30Np0nTs Global Warming
https://sites.google.com/site/ 5effectsofindustrialization/summary/currenteffects Scan document 2 of June 01 exam Rich nations point out that developing countries, while responsible for just 26 percent of carbon emissions since 1950, are quickly becoming
major emitters in their own right. And, as industrial countries emphasize, booming populations and economic growth are fueling an explosive increase in carbon emissions. The United States Department of Energy projects that carbon output from developing nations will, in the absence of any new policies, outgrow that of their neighbors as early as 2020, with China eclipsing the United States as the worlds leading emitter by 2015.
World Watch,1998 Child labor
To save on labor costs in the 1990s, many corporations have moved their manufacturing operations overseas to poor countries. In sweatshops in these developing countries, young children work long hours under wretched conditions. They are unprotected by child labor laws. For mere pennies per hour, children sort vegetables, stitch soccer balls, or assemble expensive basketball shoes. In the United States each year $178 billion worth of clothing is sold. Some studies estimate more than half of that
clothing is manufactured in sweatshops where children work. Like the children who toiled in Manchesters factories in the 1800s, children labor to help support their families. http://www.ltisdschools.org/cms/lib/TX21000349/Centricity/Domain/ 287/Chapter_25.pdf Child labor is a . . . problem throughout the world, especially in developing
countries. Africa and Asia together account for over 90 percent of total child employment. . . . Children work for a variety of reasons, the most important being poverty and the . . . pressure upon them to escape from this plight. Though children are not well paid, they still serve as major contributors to family income in developing countries. Schooling problems also contribute to child labor, whether it be the inaccessibility of schools or the lack of quality education which spurs parents to enter their children in more profitable pursuits. . . .
Working children are the objects of extreme exploitation in terms of toiling [working] for long hours for minimal pay. Their work conditions are especially severe, often not providing . . . proper physical and mental development. . . . However, there are problems with the . . . solution of immediately abolishing child labor to prevent such abuse. First, there is no international agreement defining child labor, making it hard to isolate cases of abuse, let alone abolish them. Second, many children may have to work in order to attend school so abolishing
child labor may only hinder their education. . . . The state could help make it worthwhile for a child to attend school, whether it be by providing students with nutritional supplements or increasing the quality and usefulness of obtaining an education. There must be an economic change in the condition of a struggling family to free a child from the responsibility of working. Family subsidies can help provide this support.
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