nematodes Cultural practices (rotation, tillage, planting date, etc.) Reduce plant stress (population, weed management, fertility) Fungicides Management Practices Variety selection Resistance - prevents colonization and disease development
SCN Management Guide, 1999 B. Matthews, ARS Management Practices Variety selection Resistance - reduces build up of inoculum Susceptible variety has large lesions
Resistant variety has smaller and yellowishgreen color lesions Management Practices Variety selection Seed quality - plant seed that is high quality Planting infected seed can inhibit germination, slow seedling growth, or introduce new pathogens into a field. Management Practices Manage weeds, insects, and nematodes
Weeds - increase inoculum - improve microclimate for spore production Desmodium species (tick trefoils) are an alternate source of some viruses Management Practices Manage weeds, insects, and nematodes Insects - source of inoculum - provide entry wounds for pathogens
Marlin E. Rice Management Practices Manage weeds, insects, and nematodes Nematodes - interact with other pathogens The presence of soybean cyst nematode can increase other soybean diseases like brown stem rot and sudden death syndrome. Management Practices Cultural practices
Crop rotation - prevents build up of inoculum Photo courtesy Dr. Randy Martin, Bioworks, inc. Destroyed/suppressed Photo by Brenda Collins, Http://glaucus.org.uk/FungiLC.html Competition for food Management Practices Cultural practices
Tillage - decreases surface residue (foliar disease inoculum) - conservation tillage increases soil moisture Management Practices Cultural practices Planting date - escape infection - escape severe disease Harvest date - remove plants from field before disease becomes problematic
Management Practices Reduce plant stress High populations - compete for light, water, and nutrients Heavy weed pressure - competition Fertility - adequate nitrogen and potassium Management Practices Fungicides
Seed treatments - protect roots from soilborne pathogens Management Practices Fungicides Foliar fungicides - stop infection and colonization of host Spore germination Syngenta
Cropping history and percent surface crop residue affect the risk of disease. Many pathogens survive in crop residue, which can be a source of inoculum. Varieties vary in their susceptibility to diseases. Disease presence early in the season may result in greater yield loss than diseases that occur later in the season. Fungicides do not affect diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, or nematodes. Profitability of a fungicide application depends on the price of grain and the cost of application. Interrupting the disease cycle How does management interrupt the disease cycle?
Inoculum produced Survival Production of survival structures Symptoms Dispersal
Colonization Infection Interrupting the disease cycle Rotation; tillage; planting high quality seed Inoculum produced Survival Production of survival
produced Survival Production of survival structures Symptoms Dispersal Colonization
Infection Summary The disease cycle for all pathogens is essentially the same. Effective management strategies break the disease cycle. An understanding of the disease cycle will help implement management strategies.
Emergencies Beyond the A,B,C's of Resuscitation in the DR and NICU Case # 1 Summoned to the LDR STAT term infant no prenatal complications cyanotic severe respiratory distress cyanosis, grunting, retractions, HR 140, good tone Case # 1 Attempt PPV...
She died in 2008, a few months short of her 100th birthday. ... James Elliott "Willie" Williams is the most decorated enlisted man in the U.S. Navy's history. He enlisted in the Navy in 1947, at the age of 16....
Kathy Kubo, College of the Canyons. California Acceleration Project. Accelerationproject.org. Becoming AB 705 Compliant. What AB 705 says about placement. CCCCO Guidelines. MMAP research supporting AB 705-compliant placement rules. Transfer-level corequisite models to support student success ...
Peter Dudley. Ian. Lesson Study at West Lodge - 2nd Year. The long game - journey of 1000 miles begins with 1 step. Slow and steady instructional improvement . Building on the foundations - brick by brick. All staff involved...
kite - is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent sides congruent and no opposite sides congruent. ... Graph the quadrilateral. Step 2 - Find the slope of each side. ... Algebra II Last modified by ...
"Developing human resource to be a strong production power that could respond to the sustainable socio-economic development as directing to industrialization and modernization, being able to integrate and compete with regional and international counterparts with quantity and quality, enables population...