16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity According to

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity According to

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity According to special relativity, mass and energy are equivalent. According to general relativity, gravity causes space to become curved and time to undergo changes. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

One of the most celebrated outcomes of special relativity is the discovery that mass and energy are one and the same thingas described by E = mc2. Einsteins general theory of relativity, developed a decade after his special

theory of relativity, offers another celebrated outcome, an alternative to Newtons theory of gravity. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity As an object approaches the speed of light, its

momentum increases dramatically. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity If we push an object that is free to move, it will accelerate. If we push with a greater and greater force, we expect the acceleration in turn to increase. It might seem that the speed

should increase without limit, but there is a speed limit in the universethe speed of light. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity Newtonian and Relativistic Momentum Recall Newtons second law, expressed in terms of momentum: F = mv/t (which reduces to the familiar F = ma, or a = F/m).

Apply more impulse and the object acquires more momentum. Momentum can increase without any limit, even though speed cannot. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity Momentum equals mass times velocity: p = mv (we use p for momentum) To Newton, infinite momentum would mean infinite speed. Einstein showed that a new definition of momentum is

required: where v is the speed of an object and c is the speed of light. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity This is relativistic momentum, which is noticeable at speeds approaching the speed of light. The relativistic momentum of an object of mass m and speed v is larger than mv by a factor of

. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity As v approaches c, the denominator approaches zero. This means that the momentum approaches infinity! An object pushed to the speed of light would have infinite momentum and would require an infinite impulse, which is clearly impossible.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity So nothing that has mass can be pushed to the speed of light. Hence c is the speed limit in the universe. If v is much less than c, the denominator of the equation is nearly equal to 1 and p is nearly equal to mv. Newtons definition of momentum is valid at low speed. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity Trajectory of High-Speed Particles When a particle is pushed close to the speed of light, it acts as if its mass were increasing, because its momentum increases more than its speed increases. The rest mass of an object, m in the equation for relativistic momentum, is a constant, a property of the object no matter what speed it has. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity When subatomic particles are pushed to nearly the speed of light, their momenta may be thousands of times more than the Newton expression mv predicts. Look at the momentum of a high-speed particle in terms of the stiffness of its trajectory. The more momentum a particle has, the harder it is to deflect itthe stiffer is its trajectory. If the particle has a lot of momentum, it more greatly resists changing course. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity When a beam of electrons is directed into a magnetic field, the charged particles experience a force that deflects them from their normal paths. For a particle with a small momentum, the path curves sharply. For a particle with a large momentum, the path curves only a littleits trajectory is stiffer. A particle moving only a little faster than another (99.9% of c instead of 99% of c) will have much

greater momentum and will follow a straighter path in the magnetic field. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity If the momentum of the electrons were equal to the Newtonian value of momentum, mv, the beam would follow the dashed line. The beam instead follows the stiffer trajectory shown by the solid line because the relativistic momentum is greater.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity Physicists working with subatomic particles at atomic accelerators verify every day the correctness of the relativistic definition of momentum and the speed limit imposed by nature.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.1 Momentum and Inertia in Relativity How does an objects momentum change as it approaches the speed of light? 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Mass and energy are equivalentanything with mass also has energy. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy A remarkable insight of Einsteins special theory of relativity is his conclusion that mass is simply a form of energy. A piece of matter has an energy of being called its rest energy.

Einstein concluded that it takes energy to make mass and that energy is released when mass disappears. Rest mass is, in effect, a kind of potential energy. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy Conversion of Mass to Energy The amount of rest energy E is related to the mass m by the most celebrated equation of the twentieth century:

E = mc2 where c is again the speed of light. This equation gives the total energy content of a piece of stationary matter of mass m. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy The quantity c2 is a conversion factor. It converts the measurement of mass to the

measurement of equivalent energy. It is the ratio of rest energy to mass: E/m = c2. It has nothing to do with light and nothing to do with motion. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy The speed of light c is a large quantity and its square is even larger. This means that a small amount of mass stores a large amount of energy.

The magnitude of c2 is 90 quadrillion (9 1016) joules per kilogram. One kilogram of matter has an energy of being equal to 90 quadrillion joules. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy Examples of Mass-Energy Conversions Rest energy can be converted to other forms. For example, when we strike a match, a chemical reaction

occurs and heat is released. The molecules containing phosphorus in a match head rearrange themselves and combine with oxygen to form new molecules. These molecules have very slightly less mass than the separate phosphorus- and oxygen-containing molecules by about one part in a billion. For all chemical reactions that give off energy, there is a corresponding decrease in mass. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy In one second, 4.5 million tons of rest mass is converted to radiant energy in the sun. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy In nuclear reactions, rest mass decreases by about 1

part in 1000. The sun is so massive that in a million years only one ten-millionth of the suns rest mass will have been converted to radiant energy. The present stage of thermonuclear fusion in the sun has been going on for the past 5 billion years, and there is sufficient hydrogen fuel for fusion to last another 5 billion years. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy Saying that a power plant delivers 90 million megajoules of energy to its consumers is equivalent to saying that it delivers 1 gram of energy to its consumers, because mass and energy are equivalent. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy E = mc2 is not restricted to chemical and nuclear reactions. A change in energy of any object at rest is accompanied by a

change in its mass. A light bulb filament has more mass when it is energized with electricity than when it is turned off. A hot cup of tea has more mass than the same cup of tea when cold. A wound-up spring clock has more mass than the same clock when unwound. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy

These examples involve incredibly small changes in mass too small to be measured by conventional methods. The equation E = mc2 is more than a formula for the conversion of rest mass into other kinds of energy, or vice versa. It states that energy and mass are the same thing. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy think!

Can we look at the equation E = mc2 in another way and say that matter transforms into pure energy when it is traveling at the speed of light squared? 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy think! Can we look at the equation E = mc2 in another way and say that matter transforms into pure energy when it is traveling at the speed of light squared?

Answer: No, no, no! Matter cannot be made to move at the speed of light, let alone the speed of light squared (which is not a speed!). The equation E = mc2 simply means that energy and mass are two sides of the same coin. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.2 Equivalence of Mass and Energy What is the relationship between mass

and energy? 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle According to the correspondence principle, if the equations of special relativity (or any other new theory) are to be valid, they must correspond to those of Newtonian mechanicsclassical mechanicswhen speeds much less than the

speed of light are considered. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle If a new theory is to be valid, it must account for the verified results of the old theory. The correspondence principle states that new theory and old must overlap and agree in the region where the results of the old theory have been fully verified.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle The relativity equations for time dilation, length contraction, and momentum are 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle These equations reduce to a Newtonian value for speeds that are very small compared with c. Then, the ratio (v/c)2 is very

small, and may be taken to be zero. The relativity equations become 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle So for everyday speeds: The time scales and length scales of moving objects are essentially unchanged. The Newtonian equations for momentum and kinetic energy hold true.

When the speed of light is approached, things change dramatically. The equations of special relativity hold for all speeds, although they are significant only for speeds near the speed of light. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle Einstein never claimed that accepted laws of physics were

wrong, but instead showed that the laws of physics implied something that hadnt before been appreciated. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.3 The Correspondence Principle How does the correspondence principle apply to special relativity?

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity The principle of equivalence states that local observations made in an accelerated frame of reference cannot be distinguished from observations made in a Newtonian gravitational field. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.4 General Relativity The special theory of relativity is about motion observed in uniformly moving frames of reference. Einstein was convinced that the laws of nature should be expressed in the same form in every frame of reference. This motivation led him to develop the general theory of relativitya new theory of gravitation, in which gravity causes space

to become curved and time to slow down. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity Einstein was led to this new theory of gravity by thinking about observers in accelerated motion. He imagined a spaceship far away from gravitational

influences. In such a spaceship at rest or in uniform motion relative to the distant stars, everything within the ship would float freely. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity If rocket motors were activated to accelerate the ship,

things would be differentphenomena similar to gravity would be observed. The wall adjacent to the rocket motors (the floor) would push up against any occupants and give them the sensation of weight. If the acceleration of the spaceship were equal to g, the occupants could be convinced the ship was at rest on the surface of Earth. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.4 General Relativity a. Everything inside is weightless when the spaceship isnt accelerating. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity a. Everything inside

is weightless when the spaceship isnt accelerating. b. When the spaceship accelerates, an occupant inside feels gravity. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.4 General Relativity The Principle of Equivalence Einstein concluded, in what is now called the principle of equivalence, that gravity and accelerated motion through space-time are related. You cannot tell whether you are being pulled by gravity or being accelerated. The effects of gravity and acceleration are equivalent. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.4 General Relativity Einstein considered the consequence of dropping two balls, say one of wood and the other of lead, in a spaceship. When released, the balls continue to move upward side by side with the velocity that the ship had at the moment of release. If the ship were moving at constant velocity (zero acceleration), the balls would appear to remain suspended in the same place.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity If the ship were accelerating, the floor would move upward faster than the balls, which would be intercepted by the floor. Both balls, regardless of their masses, would meet the floor at the same time. Occupants of the spaceship might attribute their observations to the force of gravity.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity To an observer inside the accelerating ship, a lead ball and a wooden ball accelerate downward together when released, just as they would if pulled by gravity. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity

Both interpretations of the falling balls are equally valid. Einstein incorporated this equivalence, or impossibility of distinguishing between gravitation and acceleration, in the foundation of his general theory of relativity. Einstein stated that the principle holds for all natural phenomena, including optical, electromagnetic, and mechanical phenomena. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity

Bending of Light by Gravity Consider a ball thrown sideways in a stationary spaceship in the absence of gravity. The ball will follow a straight-line path relative to both an observer inside the ship and to a stationary observer outside the spaceship. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity If the ship is accelerating, the floor overtakes the ball and it

hits the wall below the level at which it was thrown. An observer outside the ship still sees a straight-line path. An observer in the accelerating ship sees that the path is curved. The same holds true for a beam of light. The only difference is in the amount of path curvature. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity

A ball is thrown sideways in an accelerating spaceship in the absence of gravity. a.An outside observer sees the ball travel in a straight line. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity A ball is thrown sideways in an accelerating spaceship in the absence of gravity. a.An outside observer sees the ball travel in a straight line. b.To an inside observer, the ball follows a parabolic path as

if in a gravitational field. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity A light ray enters the spaceship horizontally through a side window. a.Light appears, to an outside observer, to be traveling horizontally in a straight line. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.4 General Relativity A light ray enters the spaceship horizontally through a side window. a.Light appears, to an outside observer, to be traveling horizontally in a straight line. b.To an inside observer, the light appears to bend. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity

The trajectory of a baseball tossed at nearly the speed of light closely follows the trajectory of a light beam. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity Using his principle of equivalence, Einstein took another giant step that led him to the general theory of relativity. He reasoned that since acceleration (a space-time effect) can mimic gravity (a force), perhaps gravity is not a separate force after all.

Perhaps it is nothing but a manifestation of space-time. From this bold idea he derived the mathematics of gravity as being a result of curved space-time. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity According to Newton, tossed balls curve because of a force of gravity. According to Einstein, tossed balls and light dont curve because of any force, but because the space-time in which

they travel is curved. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.4 General Relativity What does the principle of equivalence state? 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry

The presence of mass produces a curvature or warping of space-time; conversely, a curvature of space-time reveals the presence of mass. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry Space-time has four dimensionsthree space dimensions (length, width, and height) and one time dimension (past to future).

Einstein perceived a gravitational field as a geometrical warping of four-dimensional space-time. Four-dimensional geometry is altogether different from the three-dimensional geometry introduced by Euclid centuries earlier. Euclidean geometry is no longer valid when applied to objects in the presence of strong gravitational fields. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry

Four-Dimensional Geometry The rules of Euclidean geometry pertain to figures that can be drawn on a flat surface. The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is equal to . All the angles in a triangle add up to 180. The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. The rules of Euclidean geometry are valid in flat space, but if you draw circles or triangles on a curved surface like a sphere or a saddle-shaped object the Euclidean rules no

longer hold. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The sum of the angles of a triangle is not always 180. a. On a flat surface, the sum is 180. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry

The sum of the angles of a triangle is not always 180. a. On a flat surface, the sum is 180. b. On a spherical surface, the sum is greater than 180. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The sum of the angles of a triangle is not always 180. a. On a flat surface, the sum is 180. b. On a spherical surface, the sum is greater than 180. c. On a saddle-shaped surface, the sum is less than 180.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The geometry of Earths two-dimensional curved surface differs from the Euclidean geometry of a flat plane. a. The sum of the angles for an equilateral triangle (the one here has the sides equal Earths circumference) is greater than 180. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The geometry of Earths two-dimensional curved surface differs from the Euclidean geometry of a flat plane. a. The sum of the angles for an equilateral triangle (the one here has the sides equal Earths circumference) is greater than 180. b. Earths circumference is only twice its diameter instead of 3.14 times its diameter. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry

Of course, the lines forming triangles on curved surfaces are not straight from the three-dimensional view. They are the straightest or shortest distances between two points if we are confined to the curved surface. These lines of shortest distance are called geodesics. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The path of a light beam follows a geodesic. Three experimenters on Earth, Venus, and Mars measure

the angles of a triangle formed by light beams traveling between them. The light beams bend when passing the sun, resulting in the sum of the three angles being larger than 180. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry So the three-dimensional space around the sun is positively curved. The planets that orbit the sun travel along four-dimensional

geodesics in this positively curved space-time. Freely falling objects, satellites, and light rays all travel along geodesics in four-dimensional space-time. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The light rays joining the three planets form a triangle. Since the suns gravity bends the light rays, the sum of the angles of the resulting triangle is

greater than 180. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry The Shape of the Universe Although space-time is curved locally (within a solar system or within a galaxy), recent evidence shows that the universe as a whole is flat. There are an infinite number of possible positive curvatures to space-time, and an infinite number of possible negative

curvatures, but only one condition of zero curvature. A universe of zero or negative curvature is open-ended and extends without limit. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry If the universe had positive curvature, it would close in on itself. No one knows why the universe is actually flat or nearly flat. The leading theory is that this is the result of an incredibly

large and near-instantaneous inflation that took place as part of the Big Bang some 13.7 billion years ago. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry General relativity calls for a new geometry: a geometry not only of curved space but of curved time as wella geometry of curved four-dimensional space-time. Even if the universe at large has no average curvature, theres very much curvature near massive bodies.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry Instead of visualizing gravitational forces between masses, we abandon altogether the idea of gravitational force and think of masses responding in their motion to the curvature or warping of the space-time they inhabit. General relativity tells us that the bumps, depressions, and warpings of geometrical space-time are gravity.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry We cannot visualize the four-dimensional bumps and depressions in space-time because we are three-dimensional beings. Consider a simplified analogy in two dimensions: a heavy ball resting on the middle of a waterbed. The more massive the ball, the more it dents or warps the two-dimensional surface. A marble rolled across such a surface may trace an oval

curve and orbit the ball. The planets that orbit the sun similarly travel along fourdimensional geodesics in the warped space-time about the sun. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry Space-time near a star is curved in a way similar to the surface of a waterbed when a heavy ball rests on it. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry Gravitational Waves Every object has mass, and therefore makes a bump or depression in the surrounding space-time. When an object moves, the surrounding warp of space and time moves to readjust to the new position. These readjustments produce ripples in the overall geometry of space-time. The ripples that travel outward from the gravitational sources at the speed of light are gravitational waves.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry Any accelerating object produces a gravitational wave. In general, the more massive the object and the greater its acceleration, the stronger the resulting gravitational wave. Even the strongest gravitational waves produced by ordinary astronomical events are the weakest kinds of waves known in nature. Detecting gravitational waves is enormously difficult, but

physicists think they may be able to do it. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry think! Whoa! We learned previously that the pull of gravity is an interaction between masses. And we learned that light has no mass. Now we say that light can be bent by gravity. Isnt this a contradiction?

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry think! Whoa! We learned previously that the pull of gravity is an interaction between masses. And we learned that light has no mass. Now we say that light can be bent by gravity. Isnt this a contradiction? Answer: There is no contradiction when the mass-energy equivalence is understood. Its true that light is massless, but it is not

energyless. The fact that gravity deflects light is evidence that gravity pulls on the energy of light. Energy indeed is equivalent to mass! 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.5 Gravity, Space, and a New Geometry What is the relationship between the presence of mass and the curvature of space-time?

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Upon developing the general theory of relativity, Einstein predicted that the elliptical orbits of the planets precess about the sun, starlight passing close to the sun is deflected, and gravitation causes time to slow down. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

16.6 Tests of General Relativity Precession of the Planetary Orbits Using four-dimensional field equations, Einstein recalculated the orbits of the planets about the sun. His theory gave almost the same results as Newtons law of gravity. The exception was that Einsteins theory predicted that the elliptical orbits of the planets should

precess independent of the Newtonian influence of other planets. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity This precession would be very slight for distant planets and more pronounced close to the sun. Mercury is the only planet close enough to the sun for the curvature of space to produce an effect big

enough to measure. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Precession in the orbits of planets caused by perturbations of other planets was well known. Since the early 1800s astronomers measured a precession of Mercurys orbitabout 574 seconds of arc per century. Perturbations by the other planets were found to account for the precessionexcept for 43 seconds of arc per century.

General relativity equations applied to Mercurys orbit predict the extra 43 seconds of arc per century. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Deflection of Starlight Einstein predicted that starlight passing close to the sun would be deflected by an angle of 1.75 seconds of arc. Deflection of starlight can be observed during an eclipse of the sun.

A photograph taken of the darkened sky around the eclipsed sun reveals the presence of the nearby bright stars. The positions of stars are compared with other photographs of the same part of the sky taken at night with the same telescope. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity The deflection of starlight has supported Einsteins prediction.

More support is provided by gravitational lensing, a phenomenon in which light from a distant galaxy is bent as it passes by a nearer galaxy in such a way that multiple images of the distant galaxy appear. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Starlight bends as it grazes the sun. Point A shows the apparent position; point B shows the true position. (The deflection is exaggerated.)

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Gravitational Red Shift Einsteins third prediction was that gravity causes clocks to run slow. Clocks on the first floor of a building should tick slightly more slowly than clocks on the top floor, which are farther from Earth and at a higher gravitation potential energy.

If you move from a distant point down to the surface of Earth, you move in the direction that the gravitational force actstoward lower potential energy, where clocks run more slowly. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity From the top to the bottom of the tallest skyscraper, the difference is very smalla few millionths of a second per decade.

At the surface of the sun compared with the surface of Earth, the clock-slowing effect is more pronounced. A clock in the deeper potential well at the surface of the sun should run measurably slower than a clock at Earths surface. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity A clock at the surface of Earth runs slower than a clock farther away.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Einstein suggested a way to measure this. Light traveling against gravity is observed to have a slightly lower frequency due to an effect called the gravitational red shift. A lowering of frequency shifts the color of the emitted light toward the red. Although this effect is weak in the gravitational field of the sun, it is stronger in more compact stars with greater surface

gravity. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity An experiment confirming Einsteins prediction was performed in 1960 with high-frequency gamma rays sent between the top and bottom floors of a laboratory building at Harvard University. Incredibly precise measurements confirmed the gravitational slowing of time.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity Measurements of time depend not only on relative motion, as we learned in special relativity, but also on gravity. In special relativity, time dilation depends on the speed of one frame of reference relative to another one. In general relativity, the gravitational red shift depends on the location of one point in a gravitational field relative to another one.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity think! Why do we not notice the bending of light by gravity in our everyday environment?

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity think! Why do we not notice the bending of light by gravity in our everyday environment? Answer: Earths gravity is too weak to produce a measurable bending. Even the sun produces only a tiny deflection. It takes a whole galaxy to bend light appreciably.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity 16.6 Tests of General Relativity What three predictions did Einstein make based on his general theory of relativity? 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions

1. Compared to the momentum of objects moving at regular high speeds, momentum for objects traveling at relativistic speeds is a. greater. b. less. c. the same, in accord with momentum conservation. d. dependent on rest mass. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

Assessment Questions 1. Compared to the momentum of objects moving at regular high speeds, momentum for objects traveling at relativistic speeds is a. greater. b. less. c. the same, in accord with momentum conservation. d. dependent on rest mass. Answer: A

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 2. To say that E = mc2 is to say that energy a. increases as the speed of light is squared. b. is twice as much as the speed of light. c. and mass are equivalent. d. equals mass traveling at the speed of light squared.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 2. To say that E = mc2 is to say that energy a. increases as the speed of light is squared. b. is twice as much as the speed of light. c. and mass are equivalent. d. equals mass traveling at the speed of light squared.

Answer: C 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 3. According to the correspondence principle, a. new theory must agree with old theory where they overlap. b. Newtons mechanics is as valid as Einsteins mechanics.

c. relativity equations apply to high speeds, while Newtons equations apply to low speeds. d. special relativity and general relativity are two sides of the same coin. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 3. According to the correspondence principle,

a. new theory must agree with old theory where they overlap. b. Newtons mechanics is as valid as Einsteins mechanics. c. relativity equations apply to high speeds, while Newtons equations apply to low speeds. d. special relativity and general relativity are two sides of the same coin. Answer: A 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

Assessment Questions 4. General relativity is most concerned with a. differences in speeds. b. differences in space-time. c. black holes. d. gravity. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity

Assessment Questions 4. General relativity is most concerned with a. differences in speeds. b. differences in space-time. c. black holes. d. gravity. Answer: D

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 5. According to four-dimensional geometry, the angles of a triangle a. always add up to 180. b. sometimes add up to 180. c. never add up to 180. d. only add up to 180 on Earth.

16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 5. According to four-dimensional geometry, the angles of a triangle a. always add up to 180. b. sometimes add up to 180. c. never add up to 180. d. only add up to 180 on Earth.

Answer: B 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 6. General relativity predicts that light a. becomes faster due to gravity. b. bends and clocks slow in gravitational fields. c. slows and clocks become faster in gravitational fields.

d. remains unchanged throughout gravitational fields. 16 RelativityMomentum, Mass, Energy, and Gravity Assessment Questions 6. General relativity predicts that light a. becomes faster due to gravity. b. bends and clocks slow in gravitational fields. c. slows and clocks become faster in gravitational fields.

d. remains unchanged throughout gravitational fields. Answer: B

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